And we’ve all got those things in our lives, don’t we? 10:16). That’s what’s going on in the Lord’s Supper. And that’s where we come back to the fourth cup. In this riveting journey into the Jewish roots of Christianity, Dr. Pitre explores … The context here in Mark 14 – Jesus will be betrayed after this and arrested; He’s been teaching, He’s been preaching. (2) The Second Cup (the haggadah cup): This is the cup of proclamation telling the story of what God did for Israel. All that the Passover lamb pointed to is the one serving the feast to them. Let me try to put it as clearly as I can. Not only is the omission conspicuous, it appears to be underscored by the words of Jesus in the preceding verse: “Truly, I say to you, I shall not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the Kingdom of God” (Mark 14:25). Wrath of God. And that’s why He didn’t drink the fourth cup. And so would You meet us in the Word preached and the Word pictured for the glory of the great name of the King who sets the Table, even Jesus our Lord, in whose name alone we humbly pray. Let’s not sanitize that. Notice first of all that Jesus does not drink that fourth cup. And if you think about it this way, Jesus is the ultimate Host who became a Host in His earthly life to those who should have been His hosts. The third course was the main meal, consisting of lamb and unleavened bread, after which was drunk the third cup of wine, known as the “cup of blessing.” The Passover climaxed with the singing of the “Great Hallel” (Psalms 114-118) and the drinking of the fourth cup of wine. Audio book (Narrator: Arthur Morey) 'The Fourth Cup' is both a biographical story about the author, Scott Hahn, and his journey from Presbyterianism to Roman Catholicism and an investigation of the Last Supper and the Passion of Christ (with the death on the cross, esp. I learned Scripture teaches that the Passover sacrifice of the New Covenant began in the upper room with the institution of the Eucharist, not merely with Jesus being crucified on Calvary, as I was taught and had been teaching. 10:16). . This came as a surprise, since I had always taught, as I had been trained, that Hebrews, more than any other New Testament book, contradicted the Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist as a sacrifice. Peter is saying curse words. Gabe Fluhrer on And he has this very poignant story about finding an old photograph in her things when he was cleaning them out after she died. It’s meant to arrest all five of our senses. Jesus then identified himself as the “true bread from heaven” (6:32ff.) He said to the Jews, ‘Behold your King!’ They cried out, ‘Away with him, away with him, crucify him! FOURTH CUP Dr. Scott Hahn -- The Catholic understanding of the Mystical Body of Christ, embodied in the Church and revealed anew in the Holy Eucharist, comes directly from the Bible, according to renowned apologist Dr. Scott Hahn. About The Eucharist in Scripture In The Eucharist in Scripture, discover God’s plan as it is expressed through the Bible and the Mass. That’s the Lamb in their midst then. John shows how Jesus miraculously provided bread for five thousand after “he had given thanks [eucharistesas],” thereby evoking Eucharistic imagery. We were put to death, as it were, in Him. Following this to the end of the fourth Gospel, I began to notice several places where John deliberately weaves together various strands of Kingdom and Passover imagery in depicting Jesus’ trial and passion. God is sovereign. It is precisely in this manner that the Father beholds a perfect and perpetual offering in the living body of the Son. Moreover, the Mishnah is not known for an innovative approach to liturgical reforms. I find the supposed conflict between the synoptics and John is resolved to my satisfaction by Annie Jaubert, The Date of the Last Supper (Staten Island: Alba House, 1965). Such language reflects a solid belief in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. For full copyright, reproduction and permission information, please visit the First Presbyterian Church Copyright, Reproduction & Permission statement. We’re coming here tonight saying there is a day coming when, because the Lamb of God spilled His blood for us, drank the cup of God’s fury, that we will be forever feasting with Him in a faint picture given to us tonight at the marriage supper of the Lamb, because we get to drink the cup of blessing because He drank the cup of wrath. So when you read the Gospel accounts, “They sang a psalm and went out,” it was likely Psalm 118 which, incidentally, is a beautiful description of the work that the Messiah would do. Rooted in Scripture and ingrained with lively history, The Fourth Cup delivers a fascinating view of the bridges that span old and new covenants, and celebrates the importance of the Jewish faith in understanding more fully Christ’s life, death, and resurrection. In other words, something more remains for us to do. Let’s pray! Paul shares a similar perspective when he states, “Christ our paschal lamb has been sacrificed.” (1 Cor. And there was a prayer, “Lord, make us worthy of the Messiah and to be Your people, the Messiah the Son of David in His seed.” Because of our union with Christ, all that’s true of Him is true of us. Three times altogether Jesus prayed for his Father to take away “this cup.” An obvious question arises: What cup was Jesus talking about? I have read criticisms of Jaubert’s thesis, but I don’t feel much force behind them; for a popular summary of the alleged problems, see Raymond Brown, “The Date of the Last Supper,” in The Bible Today Reader (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1973), 322-28.] In this way John prepares his readers to understand how Jesus formed a new covenant family by means of his own Eucharistic sacrifice as High Priest and paschal victim. Is there a stronger word in our English language to express when somebody is angry beyond all sense than fury? We pray in His name, amen. This family bond was expressed in relational terms of father and son (Ex. We’re the Judas in this text. The second stage of my rethinking came from studying the Jewish Passover liturgy. What is this text teaching me about God? My favorite three words the longer I preach the Word of God – I don’t know! It is written, “Woe to that man!” We are responsible. and the “bread of life” (6:35), drawing a parallel with Moses, through whom God supernaturally fed manna to the Israelites while forming a covenant with them right after the first Passover (Ex. And the fourth cup was the cup of consummation. 11:29). She also published an article arguing that even John’s account of the upper room shares a paschal background, “The Calendar of Qumran and the Passion Narrative in John,” in J. Charlesworth, ed., John and Qumran (London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1972), 62-75. The Passover meal was divided into four parts. Where I pick up, therefore, is in the province of biblical theology, where exegetical results are correlated according to theological concerns. 13:10). This is apparent from the singing of the “Great Hallel” which immediately follows: “And when they had sung a hymn. It would have been better for that man if he had not been born.’, And as they were eating, he took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to them, and said, ‘Take; this is my body.’ And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, and they all drank of it. 10:16) surely connects with the third cup. We are ministers. This is God’s Word: “And on the first day of Unleavened Bread, when they sacrificed the Passover lamb, his disciples said to him, ‘Where will you have us go and prepare for you to eat the Passover?’ And he sent two of his disciples and said to them, ‘Go into the city, and a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. 9:25-26). Indeed, it will continue that way for God’s family forever into eternity. “I am going to be with you after I’m gone. On the other hand, “every high priest is appointed to offer gifts and sacrifices; hence it is necessary for this priest also to have something to offer” (Heb. 7:27; 9:12, 26; 10:10). He pays a slave’s price for the King of the universe. He appears as the Lamb because his sacrificial offering continues. And what that tells us is that this Lord’s Supper that we’re going to celebrate here shortly is meant to take us back. This table will remind you of Me and I will be present at that table. He later consumed the fourth cup while hanging from the Cross. Besides, I had never attended Mass. He discusses his new books: Spirit & Life, the Revelation Study Bible, andKinship by Covenant. Indeed, Paul identifies this “cup of blessing” with the Eucharistic cup (1 Cor. And what I want to see this evening, briefly, are two quick points. Recent study of biblical covenants by scholars such as D. J. McCarthy shows how such a covenant formed a sacred flesh-and- blood bond between Yahweh and Israel, making them one family. So after the blessing and the first cup, this food was brought in, and the son would ask the question, the firstborn son – “What are we doing?” And the father would explain and then drink the second cup of wine and break the bread and say, here was the prayer, “The Lord our God, sovereign of the world, who has caused bread to come forth out of the earth, praise be to His name!” This is likely where Jesus distributed the bread that we just read about at this second cup. Along the way, Hahn reveals how the traditional fourth cup of wine used in the concluding celebration of Passover explains in astonishing ways Christ’s paschal sacrifice. The occasion for the discourse is explicitly stated: “Now the Passover, the feast of the Jews, was at hand” (6:4). At last I had an answer to my question. And as best as we can tell from historical documents and Jewish, rabbinical documents, documents that the rabbis wrote in the 1st century when Jesus would have celebrated this, the stewed fruit had the appearance of the kind of mortar that would have been used to make the bricks out of clay to remind them of their bondage in slavery and what God brought them out of. He is enthroned in his resurrected and glorified human body as our High Priest and King (Heb. The Passover lamb, you can read about it in Exodus 12, roasted whole, and with bitter herbs and stewed fruit. The elders will serve it to you. 4:25). This is succinctly stated: “Now the point in what we are saying is this: We have such a high priest, one who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, a minister in the sanctuary and the true tabernacle which is set up not by man but by the Lord” (Heb. Think about how shocking that would have been to a group of Jewish men in the 1st century whose entire lives, who parents’ entire lives, whose grandparents’ entire lives, whose great-grandparents’ entire lives were centered around the temple and sacrifices and this high feast day and going up to Jerusalem singing the Psalms of Ascent that we find – Psalm 120, 121 – singing all those psalms. He wrote, “As she aged, she knew that she would have difficulty believing that at one point in her life someone had cared for her and regarded her as his everything. “I have never known Him!” And there’s Judas. It says, “This is what the Lord did for me.” For me. In sum, Calvary begins with the Eucharist and the Eucharist ends with Calvary. And as Ed has reminded us, one of the things the Gospel will do is make us recognize that we are to see ourselves as Christians in this world as hosts, not guests. I encourage multiple design projects—for example, an informational brochure alongside a promotional e … The grass withers, the flowers fall, but the Word of the living God shall stand forever and ever. And the Lamb in our midst, now and forever, verses 22 to 25. That was usually a woman’s job. That’s how we think it means to remember Him. It’s a cup of protest to the selfishness that engulfs our lives and it says we are identified with another – our sin-bearing, wrath-bearing, grace-bringing substitute, the true Passover Lamb, Jesus. No attempt has been made, however, to alter the basic extemporaneous delivery style, or to produce a grammatically accurate, publication-ready manuscript conforming to an established style template. The same word for “garment” (chiton) is used in the Old Testament for the official tunic worn by the High Priest in sacrifice (Ex. We minister for the Host. What is it saying to me?” And this is one of those texts where it’s very easy to answer the, “Where am I in this text?” question. Joseph Jungmann).]. And I suspect there’s nobody out there that does either. For one thing, if he was so distracted and confused, it seems doubtful Jesus would forget and interrupt the Passover liturgy after expressly declaring his intention not to drink the fourth cup, especially since he went ahead and sang the “Great Hallel.” Why would he declare himself so plainly before acting in so disorderly a fashion? He’s the true Passover Lamb who gives us a foretaste of heaven in the Lord’s Supper. The fourth stage of the process was reached when I found in John’s Gospel a perspective on Jesus’ Kingdom glory decidedly different from that found in Matthew, Mark, and Luke. And that’s why when you come here tonight and you drink this, you’re doing something else. I don’t know any commentator who denies a connection here. 8:3). 51:17; Jer. John depends on irony in depicting the Kingdom glory of Jesus in connection with the suffering of the cross: “And Jesus answered them, ]The hour has come for the Son of man to be glorified. 115-118). We’re drinking the cup of the Messiah, the cup of kingdom consummation. All of us should have drunk the whole thing to its dregs. While it may be difficult for Gentile Christians unfamiliar with the Haggadah to perceive the serious disorder this sequence represents, it is not lost to Jewish readers and students of the seder. “Sacraments bore me,” I replied sharply. Instead of proceeding immediately to the climax of the Passover, the drinking of the fourth cup, we read: “And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives” (Mark 14:26). Second, only John mentions that Jesus was stripped of a seamless linen tunic (19:23-24). He swore an oath. 13:15). This is the family that you swear allegiance to above all others.” Jesus is telling us something about our community here. It is all of one piece. Unlike priests in the Old Testament, Jesus does not make daily offerings of distinct sacrifices (Heb. She argues two calendars were operative in Christ’s time and accepts the ancient Syriac testimony of a “Holy Tuesday” institution of the Eucharist. The bread which we break, is it not a participation [koinonia] in the body of Christ?” (1 Cor. And as they were reclining at table and eating, Jesus said, ‘Truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me, one who is eating with me.’ They began to be sorrowful and to say to him one after another, ‘Is it I?’ He said to them, ‘It is one of the twelve, one who is dipping bread into the dish with me. (3) The Third Cup (the berakah cup): This cup follows the grace after the Meal. Jesus’ sacrificial death, begun in the upper room and finished at Calvary, was not the full end of his Passover sacrifice either. Surely there is a connection here, but the connection seems less direct than does the primary link suggested by the Passover setting. The “once for all” character of Jesus’ sacrifice points to the perfection and perpetuity of his offering. All of them acted in self-interest. And what we see here, Jesus says, “He goes as it is written of him.” God is sovereign. It is almost as though Jesus meant not to drink what he was expected to drink. First of all, as we read this text and as you read Biblical text, it’s always good to ask, “Where am I? This was an important part of the Jewish understanding of Passover during the time of Jesus. For the Son of Man goes as it is written of him, but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! Death was only one.aspect of the sacrifice. That’s the cup the Savior prayed over and sweat great drops of blood, as it were. 4:22; Deut. They all looked like they were going to stay loyal. Well-known Catholic theologian Dr. Scott Hahn explains Christ's Paschal Sacrifice on the cross as the fulfillment of the traditional fourth cup used in the celebration of the Jewish Passover meal. The lamb, the sacrifice in place of the household. The scene is set pretty plainly. This is a table for betrayers. Safe in the blood of the lamb. Rooted in Scripture and ingrained with lively history, The Fourth Cup delivers a fascinating view of the bridges that span old and new covenants, and celebrates the importance of the Jewish faith in understanding more fully Christ’s life, death, and resurrection. If Jesus’ offering has ceased, there would be no basis for his ongoing priesthood, but Jesus’ priesthood is said to be permanent and to “continue forever” (Heb.7:24). All the altars that smoke with sacrifices and blood spilled upon them are no longer necessary because the true Lamb is here to die and shed His blood, which is the only blood that takes away sins.” That’s what He’s saying to them. The difference between the two is that Peter went to Jesus and Judas ran from Him. Why did they all leave Him? Serve them.”, There’s a theologian who used to be an atheist by the name of Alister McGrath. But Jesus is present by the power of the Holy Spirit when we come to this table. I got the urge to write about the Scripture study which led me into a Catholic understanding of the Holy Eucharist (and eventually into the Catholic Church) about five years ago. For one thing, I sought confirmation and clarification elsewhere in Scripture for my conclusion regarding the inseparable connection between Jesus’ Passover sacrifice in the Eucharist and on Calvary. Through his scholarly insights and important biblical connections, Mass will come alive for you as never before! And the power to be a good host in a selfish world is here tonight as Jesus the Host serves you, serves you at His table and says, “Go and invite others. Perhaps he was too upset to be bothered with liturgical precision in following the rubrics. Part memoir, part detective story, and part biblical study, Scott Hahn's The Fourth Cup opens up new vistas on ancient landscapes while shedding light on his own enduring faith journey. Then Moses led Israel out of Egypt to Mount Sinai, where the Law was given and the covenant was sealed between God and his people through sacrifice and communion. Simultaneously a prequel and a continuing of The Lamb's Supper, this book not only tracks the author's gradual conversion along the path of Evangelicalism to the doorsteps of the Catholic faith, but also … To view recordings of our entire services, visit our Facebook page. 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