[310][311][312], The modern art movement in the country officially emerged in the 1950s, culminating in the establishment of an art society. Only 18 species of mammals are found in Bahrain, animals such as gazelles, desert rabbits and hedgehogs are common in the wild but the Arabian oryx was hunted to extinction on the island. [222], The first municipality in Bahrain was the 8-member Manama municipality which was established in July 1919. [70], The Al Bin Ali were the dominant group controlling the town of Zubarah on the Qatar peninsula,[71][72] originally the center of power of the Bani Utbah. The topics covered by current exhibitions include junior engineering, human health, the five senses, Earth sciences and biodiversity. [40] However, there is little evidence of any human settlement at all on Bahrain during the time when such migration had supposedly taken place. Bahrain developed the first post-oil economy in the Persian Gulf,[18] the result of decades of investing in the banking and tourism sectors;[19] many of the world's largest financial institutions have a presence in the country's capital. Other agreements in 1880 and 1892 sealed the protectorate status of Bahrain to the British. [279] Public surveys are rare in Bahrain, but a 2017 national survey found that 62 percent of Bahrainis were Shia and 38 percent were Sunni, which is consistent with most estimates. Rigorous filtering targets political, human rights, religious material and content deemed obscene. [26] The island and kingdom were also commonly spelled Bahrein[15][27] into the 1950s. 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"[32] The Greek historian Theophrastus states that much of Bahrain was covered by these cotton trees and that Bahrain was famous for exporting walking canes engraved with emblems that were customarily carried in Babylon. Endings are added to the word with no changes, as in the name of the national anthem Bahraynunā ("our Bahrain") or the demonym Bahraynī. The state consists of two separate groups of islands, which together extend about 30 miles (50 km) from north to south and 10 miles (16 km) from east to west. The judgment was criticized by Sayed Ahmed Alwadaei, the director of advocacy at the Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy, who stated: “Today’s verdict is yet another dark stain in the struggle for human rights in Bahrain.”[212], Women in Bahrain acquired voting rights and the right to stand in national elections in the 2002 election. Often described as an archipelago of 33 islands,[134] extensive land reclamation projects have changed this; by August 2008 the number of islands and island groups had increased to 84. The University of Bahrain was established for standard undergraduate and graduate study, and the King Abdulaziz University College of Health Sciences, operating under the direction of the Ministry of Health, trains physicians, nurses, pharmacists and paramedics. The investigation indicates that the aquifer water quality is significantly modified as groundwater flows from the northwestern parts of Bahrain, where the aquifer receives its water by lateral underflow from eastern Saudi Arabia, to the southern and southeastern parts. In 2008, the jobless figure was at 4%,[242] with women over represented at 85% of the total. In 2008, approximately 290,000 Indian nationals lived in Bahrain, making them the single largest expatriate community in the country, the majority of which hail from the south Indian state of Kerala. The King Fahd Causeway connects Bahrain and Saudi Arabia across the Persian Gulf. دار كليب‎ Hotels. 1919 marked the beginning of modern public school system in Bahrain when the Al-Hidaya Al-Khalifia School for boys opened in Muharraq. [226] The most recent was in 2010. Malayalam, Tamil, Bangla and Hindi are spoken among significant Indian communities. The use of these is not confined to India, but extends to Arabia. Non-Muslim Bahraini residents numbered 367,683 per the 2010 census, most of whom are Christians. [4], Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing price of oil since 1985, for example during and following the Persian Gulf crisis of 1990–91. [105] The event resulted in approximately forty deaths and ended after Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa became the Emir of Bahrain in 1999. The island nation comprises a small archipelago made up of 51 natural islands and an additional 33 artificial islands, centered around Bahrain Island which makes up around 83 percent of the country's landmass. [247], Bird watching (primarily in the Hawar Islands), scuba diving, and horse riding are popular tourist activities in Bahrain. [218] In 2008, Houda Nonoo was appointed ambassador to the United States making her the first Jewish ambassador of any Arab country. Basketball, rugby and horse racing are also widely popular in the country. The coup would have installed a Shia cleric exiled in Iran, Hujjatu l-Islām Hādī al-Mudarrisī, as supreme leader heading a theocratic government. Bahrain's largest islands are Bahrain Island, the Hawar Islands, Muharraq Island, Umm an Nasan, and Sitra. [25] The Portuguese were expelled from the islands in 1602 by Abbas I of the Safavid Empire,[64] which gave impetus to Shia Islam. [48][49][50] According to Robert Bertram Serjeant, the Baharna may be the Arabised "descendants of converts from the original population of Christians (Aramaeans), Jews and Persians inhabiting the island and cultivated coastal provinces of Eastern Arabia at the time of the Muslim conquest". [182][183] After the Emir Hamad Al Khalifa (now king) succeeded his father Isa Al Khalifa in 1999, he introduced wide reforms and human rights improved significantly. It is an archipelago consisting of Bahrain Island and some 30 smaller islands. [237] In 2004, Bahrain signed the Bahrain–US Free Trade Agreement, which will reduce certain trade barriers between the two nations. According to Physicians for Human Rights, 34 of these deaths were related to government usage of tear gas originally manufactured by U.S.-based Federal Laboratories. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared an Islamic constitutional monarchy in 2002. Midday temperatures from May to October exceed 90 °F (32 °C), often reaching 95 °F (35 °C) or higher; summer nights are sultry and humid. The aim is to establish a knowledge hub for the six member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council. The country's natural resources include large quantities of oil and natural gas as well as fish in the offshore waters. It is harder to judge the contribution of women to research, as the data for 2013 only cover the higher education sector. [52][53], Traditional Islamic accounts state that Al-Ala'a Al-Hadrami was sent as an envoy during the Expedition of Zayd ibn Harithah (Hisma)[54][55] to the Bahrain region by the prophet Muhammad in AD 628 and that Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi, the local ruler, responded to his mission and converted the entire area. Persian is also common, although it is spoken mostly in the home. [284] Expatriate Christians make up the majority of Christians in Bahrain, while native Christian Bahrainis (who hold Bahraini citizenship) make up a smaller community. [13] The capital and largest city is Manama. [289], Education is compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 14. Precipitation mostly occurs in winter, with an average of 70.8mm of rainfall recorded annually. Manama, Bahrain's capital city, is as modern as other cities in the world. Manama is the country’s chief port and also an important economic and commercial center in the Middle East. [230], According to a January 2006 report by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, Bahrain has the fastest-growing economy in the Arab world. For many centuries after Tylos, Bahrain was known as Awal. [233][234] Bahrain's banking and financial services sector, particularly Islamic banking, have benefited from the regional boom driven by demand for oil. Ain Defla 27. [2] All commercial institutions and road signs are bilingual, displaying both English and Arabic. [81][82] In return the British promised to protect Bahrain from all aggression by sea and to lend support in case of land attack. [35], The Greek historian Strabo believed the Phoenicians originated from Bahrain. Guelma 37. [267], Bahrain invests little in research and development. [221] The platform "provides a welcome free space for journalists, although one that is increasingly monitored", according to Reporters Without Borders. Bahrain's pre-Islamic population consisted of Christian Arabs (mostly Abd al-Qays), Persians (Zoroastrians), Jews,[47] and Aramaic-speaking agriculturalists. The variety of animals is limited by the desert conditions. Expressionism and surrealism, as well as calligraphic art are the popular forms of art in the country. 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