In 1499 and 1500, the Portuguese explorers João Fernandes Lavrador and Pro de Barcelos reached what was probably now Labrador, which is believed to be the origin of its name. The coast was eventually defined as running from Blanc Sablon to Cape Chidley. There's much to see in the Tundra of Labrador (often called \"the Big Land\"), the \"mini-Rockies\" of the West Coast's Long Range Mountains and Lewis Hills, the historic Avalon Peninsula, home to the capital of St. John's. The Labrador Boundary Dispute was a Quebec-Newfoundland and Labrador border dispute that started in 1927. It is the largest and northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada. Interrupted drainage systems throughout the province have created extensive peat bogs. Western Labrador is also home to the Iron Ore Company of Canada, which operates a large iron ore mine in Labrador City. They founded Nain, Okak, Hebron, Hopedale and Makkovik. The Lower Churchill Project will develop the remaining potential of the river and supply it to provincial consumers. This is believed to be João Fernandes. The interior is like a giant saucer dotted with lakes and dissected by rivers that break through the eastern saucer rim to discharge into the Labrador Sea. The Torngat Mountain range is also home to Mount Caubvick, the highest point in the province. A transmission line began construction in October 2014 and was completed in 2016 that will deliver power down to the southern tip of Labrador and underwater across the strait of Belle Isle to the Province of Newfoundland in 2018.[7]. HIGH SCHOOL REPORTS: P.E.I. students take part in virtual tours, open houses UPDATED: P.E.I. Labrador was enumerated in the Census of Canada, 1871 (Quebec, Labrador District) and in the Census of Canada, 1911 (Northwest Territories, Labrador Sub-district). One of the provisions of the 1774 Quebec Act (14 Geo III c 83), therefore, was to transfer to Quebec al… On the extreme northeast promontory of North America, Maggiolo place-names include Terra de los Ingres (Land of the English), and Terra de Lavorador de rey de portugall (Land of Lavrador of the King of Portugal). Located on the southeastern part of the Avalon Peninsula, the Irish Loop is the heart of Irish culture and heritage in Newfoundland and Labrador. 1941: Canada builds the air base at Goose Bay. Newfoundland is an island; Labrador is an adjoining mainland coastal region which abuts Quebec.Newfoundland is fairly lightly populated, but Labrador is extremely sparsely populated. For the dog breed, see, geographic and cultural region of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Place in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, Commission d'étude sur l'intégrité du territoire du Québec. Newfoundland and Labrador is one of the Atlantic Provinces of Canada. Somewhere off the beaten path, where big game roam free. Newfoundland and Labrador business counts with employees, by NAICS category 2019 Canada: labor productivity Newfoundland and Labrador, by industry 2019 The most important statistics Newfoundland and Labrador Province, Canada. Most of Labrador (from Cartwright north and west) uses Atlantic Time (UTC−4 in winter, UTC−3 in summer). Labrador is home to a number of flora and fauna species. It is believed that the Norsemen were the first Europeans to sight Labrador around 1000 AD, but no Norse remains have been found on the North American mainland. Newfoundland and Labrador - Employment Standards 2 Benefit Eligibility The minimum standards of employment apply to all employees regardless of the number of hours worked each week. RELATED: GUEST COLUMN: Imagining Newfoundland and Labrador, post-pandemic - Part 1 Using the elements the committee had found to be uppermost in the minds of the public, Newfoundland artist, Christopher Pratt, drafted many proposals, six of which he submitted to the committee. The present community of Labrador West is entirely a result of the iron ore mining activities in the region. And in Newfoundland and Labrador, ours are the best of the best. The largest community in this region is Nain. Today the remaining stations are automated as part of the North Warning System, however the military settlements during the early part of the Cold War surrounding these stations have largely continued as local Innu and Inuit populations have clustered near their port and airfield facilities. Within each there are distinct variations in the physical characteristics of the environment, in the occurrence and availability of natural resources, and corresponding variations in the pattern of human settlement. The two provinces have a 3,500 km long boundary which is the longest inter-provincial border in the country. Ron Penney is former city manager for the City of St. John’s and a former Newfoundland and Labrador deputy minister of justice. Nunatsiavut is an Inuit self-government region in Labrador created on June 23, 2000. Although a highway link has, as of 16 December 2009, been completed across Labrador, this route is somewhat longer than a proposed Quebec North Shore highway that presently does not exist. However, in 2001, Parti Québécois cabinet ministers Jacques Brassard and Joseph Facal reasserted that Québec has never recognised the 1927 border: Les ministres rappellent qu'aucun gouvernement québécois n'a reconnu formellement le tracé de la frontière entre le Québec et Terre-Neuve dans la péninsule du Labrador selon l'avis rendu par le comité judiciaire du Conseil privé de Londres en 1927. The Labrador Coast boasts ten microclimates, including subarctic tundra, high boreal forest, string bog and coastal barrens. The area was known as Markland in Greenlandic Norse and its inhabitants were known as the Skræling. On the west coast the land rises abruptly from a narrow coastal plain to the Long Range Mountains, which reach a maximum height of 2,670 feet (814 metres). Newfoundland and Labrador officially became Canada’s 10th province less than a year later. There is a raw, untouc… According to the 2011 Census, Labrador was 55.1% White, 18.5% Inuit, 15.6% Metis, and 8.6% First Nations (Innu). We’ll land our Zodiacs at the stunning 56 km beach known as the Wonderstrands. There are MANY benefits for employers in hiring immigrants. The partitioning of the Labrador Peninsula became a point of debate between the Quebec government and Britain. A fishing village on Conception Bay, Newfoundland island, Canada. From Cape Charles to the Quebec/Labrador coastal border, the Straits is known for its Labrador sea grass (as is NunatuKavut) and the multitude of icebergs that pass by the coast via the Labrador Current. ], A Royal Commission in 2002 determined that there is some public pressure from Labradorians to break from Newfoundland and become a separate province or territory. MV Kamutik, a passenger ferry between the mainland and St. Barbe on the island of Newfoundland, is based in Blanc Sablon, Quebec, near the Labrador border. Separated by the Strait of Belle Isle, the Island of Newfoundland is combined with mainland Labrador. Most of Newfoundland and Labrador shows the effects of continental glaciation during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). The station broadcast weather observations to the German navy for only a few days, but was not discovered until the 1980s when a historian, working with the Canadian Coast Guard, identified its location and mounted an expedition to recover it. Latitude and longitude coordinates are: 53.000000, -60.000000. Labrador has always been part of the colony and then the Dominion of Newfoundland prior to Newfoundland joining Canada in 1949. That's the kind of souvenir that won't fit in your carry-on. Additionally, both the Royal Canadian Air Force and United States Air Force built and operated a number of radar stations along coastal Labrador as part of the Pinetree Line, Mid-Canada Line and DEW Line systems. Labrador is bordered to the north and east by the Labrador Sea (northwestern arm of the Atlantic Ocean) and to the south and west by the province of Quebec. It is bordered to the west and the south by the Canadian province of Quebec. Newfoundland and Labrador is spread over a huge landmass, divided into two geographical parts, separated by the Strait of Belle Isle. A southern extension of this highway has opened in stages during the early 2000s and is resulting in significant changes to the coastal ferry system in the Strait of Belle Isle and southeastern Labrador. Early settlement in Labrador was tied to the sea as demonstrated by the Montagnais (or Innu) and Inuit, although these peoples also made significant forays throughout the interior. The situation was complicated by a series of changes after 1763. The French territory of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon lies off the coast of the Burin Peninsula in southeastern Newfoundland. Due to its size, distinct nature, and large Aboriginal population, Labrador has one seat despite having the smallest population of any electoral district in Canada. It is separated from Labrador by the narrow Strait of Belle Isle and from Nova Scotia, to the southwest, by Cabot Strait. Alistair Fraser {fra98] notes: . Each of those regions is described below. As Canada and Newfoundland were separate Dominions, but both within the British Empire, the matter was referred to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council[9] (in London). At the time, Newfoundland and Labrador was not yet part of Canada. The Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador. Lewis, NunatuKavut is the territory of the NunatuKavummiut or Central-Southern Labrador Inuit (formerly known as the Labrador Métis). The Canadian government built a major air force base at Goose Bay, at the head of Lake Melville during the Second World War, a site selected because of its topography, access to the sea, defensible location, and minimal fog. Dave Evans’ dream was to open a lodge where his clients could hunt in absolute solitude. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Newfoundland and Labrador taking a break from Atlantic bubble P.E.I. Most of the supply is bought by Hydro-Québec under a long-term contract. It is the largest and northernmost geographical region in Atlantic Canada. Summers are typically cool to mild across Labrador and very rainy, and usually last from late June to the end of August. They gave this "new land" its Latin name Terranova. The Government of Newfoundland and Labrador refuses to recognise or negotiate with the Inuit of NunatuKavut until their claim has been accepted by the Government of Canada.[14]. Route 389 and the Trans-Labrador Highway were added to Canada's National Highway System in September 2005. The plateau is undulating and dotted with thousands of lakes and ponds, numerous streams, and rivers, including the Exploits, Gander, and Humber. In Labrador there are three such sub-regions: a northern coastal region, which is ruggedly mountainous, deeply fjorded, grow… https://www.britannica.com/place/Newfoundland-and-Labrador, CRW Flags - Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, Official Tourism Site of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, Official Site of the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, The Canadian Encyclopedia - Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, Memorial University of Newfoundland - Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage, Newfoundland and Labrador - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Newfoundland and Labrador - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). [citation needed], Some of the Innu nation would have the area become a homeland for them, much as Nunavut is for the Inuit, as a good portion of Nitassinan falls within Labrador's borders; a 1999 resolution of the Assembly of First Nations claimed Labrador as a homeland for the Innu and demanded recognition in any further constitutional negotiations regarding the region.[12]. Newfoundland and Labrador is one of the most food-insecure provinces in the country, according to University of Toronto-based food policy research group Proof. … The provincial government has revealed details of its support program for professional musicians and artists affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout the 20th century, coastal freighters and ferries operated initially by the Newfoundland Railway and later Canadian National Railway/CN Marine/Marine Atlantic became a critical lifeline for communities on the coast, which for the majority of that century did not have any road connection with the rest of North America. The Labour Standards Act does not differentiate between full-time and part-time 2001: The province officially changes its name to, 2007: The province and Federal Government of Canada sign an agreement to establish, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 17:36. That's one of the highest concentrations in North America, featuring some of the largest skulls in the sport. Most of the Upper Canadian and Lower Hudsonian mammalian species are found in Labrador. These fisheries have been the single most important factor in shaping the history and character of the land and its people. Nevertheless, the watersheds of the larger rivers contain deeper surface deposits that support the growth of excellent forest stands, and the province has pockets of arable mineral soils that support agriculture. Gov.nl.ca is the official website for the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is the newest of Canada’s 10 provinces, having joined the confederation only in 1949; its name was officially changed to Newfoundland and Labrador in 2001. From Cape Chidley to Hamilton Inlet, the long, thin, northern tip of Labrador holds the Torngat Mountains, named after an Inuit spirit believed to inhabit them. The Iron Ore Company of Canada operates the Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway to transport ore concentrate 578 kilometres (359 miles) south to the port of Sept-Îles, Quebec, for shipment to steel mills in North America and elsewhere. The station is now exhibited in the Canadian War Museum.[6]. One of Newfoundland's conditions for joining Confederation in 1949 was that this boundary be entrenched in the Canadian constitution. Although most of the rocks are igneous and metamorphic formations of Precambrian age (i.e., older than about 540 million years), the Labrador trough, in the west, contains softer sedimentary deposits and includes some of North America’s most extensive iron-ore deposits. Home to over 10,000 black bears, Newfoundland and Labrador is truly bear country. Considerable friction between the governments of Newfoundland and Quebec was generated by the complaints of those who had obtained Quebec grants to settle along the coast between the River St. John and Blanc Sablon and conduct sedentary fisheries - the Newfoundland authorities being intent upon encouraging the migratory fishery. These forces have produced a highly complex geologic structure, with ancient rocks of Europe and Africa on the east, newer Appalachian rocks on the west, and the bed of the ancient ocean squeezed up between them. Its western border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Labrador has a roughly triangular shape that encompasses the easternmost section of the Canadian Shield, a sweeping geographical region of thin soil and abundant mineral resources. It was an alternate landing zone for the United States' Space Shuttle. The flooding of the reservoir destroyed large areas of habitat for the threatened Woodland Caribou. Ultimately, the goal of this plan is to increase immigration in the province and welcome at least 1700 immigrants annually. A whaling station was set up around the bay, which they called Butus and is now named Red Bay after the red terracotta roof tiles they brought with them. The south eastern tip nearest Newfoundland uses Newfoundland Time (UTC−3:30 in winter, UTC−2:30 in summer) to stay co-ordinated with the more populous part of the province. A census was taken in Newfoundland in 1921, 1935 and 1945. The name has its origins in England’s adoption of the Gregorian calendar in 1752, which dropped 12 days from the old calendar and resulted in Christmas being celebrated December 25, rather than January 6. Known as "the heart of the Big Land", the area's population comprises people from all groups and regions of Labrador. [19], This article is about the region in Canada. [3] Maggiolo's World Map, 1511, shows a solid Eurasian continent running from Scandinavia around the North Pole, including Asia's arctic coast, to Newfoundland-Labrador and Greenland. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. L'Anse-au-Clair is a small town on the Labrador side of the border. The province's active caseload … It is separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle. Coeditor of. Professor Emeritus of History, Memorial University, St. James, Newfoundland. In October 1943, a German U-boat crew installed an automated weather station on the northern tip of Labrador near Cape Chidley, code-named Weather Station Kurt; the installation of the equipment was the only-known armed German military operation on the North American mainland during the war. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The Southern Inuit of NunatuKavut, who are also seeking self-government, have their land claim before the Government of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it is composed of the insular region of Newfoundland and the continental region of Labrador to the northwest. Newfoundland and Labrador are famous for their rugged scenery, cool wet maritime climate, and long history separate from Canada. Thus, the material that lies underneath the thin layer of today’s soil is generally glacial debris or marine sediments exposed by postglacial uplift. Northern Labrador's climate is classified as polar, while Southern Labrador's climate is classified as subarctic. Labrador, with an area of 113,641 square miles (294,330 square km), is geologically part of the Canadian Shield, which comprises some of the world’s oldest rocks. Together with the small community of Wabush, the two towns are known as "Labrador West". The coastal terrain is hilly and rugged; the coast itself is marked by numerous bays and fjords, and there are many offshore islands. The province’s two main components—Newfoundland island and Labrador—must be treated as separate physiographic regions. During the Second World War and the Cold War, the base was also home to American, British, and later German, Dutch, and Italian detachments. The province of Newfoundland and Labrador today is home to four peoples of Aboriginal ancestry: the Inuit, the Innu, the Mi'kmaq and the Southern Inuit of NunatuKavut (formerly the Labrador Inuit-Metis). Its location in the northeastern corner of North America is closer to Europe than any other part of the continent. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. However, the Treaty of Paris (1763) that ended the French and Indian War transferred New France (including Labrador though excluding the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon southwest of Newfoundland) to the British, which administered the area as the Province of Quebec until splitting it in two in 1791, with Labrador located in Lower Canada. The hydroelectric dam at Churchill Falls is the second-largest underground power station in the world. Labrador can be divided into four geographical regions: the North Coast, Central Labrador, Western Labrador, and the South Coast. Lands that drain into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, while lands that drain into Hudson Bay are part of Quebec. The Settlement area comprises the majority of Labrador's North Coast, while the land-use area also includes land farther to the interior and in Central Labrador. Part of the "highway", Route 389, starting approximately 212 kilometres (132 mi) from Baie-Comeau to 482 kilometres (300 mi), is of an inferior alignment, and from there to 570 kilometres (350 mi), the provincial border, is an accident-prone section notorious for its poor surface and sharp curves. Labrador is named after João Fernandes Lavrador, a Portuguese explorer who sailed along the coasts of the Peninsula in 1498–99. Those records are in the custody of the Provincial Archives of Newfoundland and Labrador. A hydroelectric generating station was built in Labrador and a transmission line to the neighbouring province of Quebec. The island, which was named the “newfoundelande,” or New Found Land, by late 15th-century explorers, lies athwart the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In 1948, just over 52 percent of the population voted to join Canada, while nearly 48 percent wanted Newfoundland and Labrador to remain independent. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. In 1949, Newfoundland entered into confederation, becoming part of Canada (see above articles for full information). Their decision set the Labrador boundary mostly along the coastal watershed, with part being defined by the 52nd parallel north. These "highways" are so called only because of their importance to the region; they would be better described as roads, and are not completely paved. (2016) 519,716; (2019 est.) The Inuit are the descendants of the Thule people who migrated to Labrador from the Canadian arctic 700 to 800 years ago. That same year the coast of Labrador was added to Newfoundland. Labrador is a geographic and cultural region within the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Most of Labrador has a subarctic climate (Dfc), but northern Labrador has a tundra climate (ET) and Happy Valley - Goose Bay has a humid continental (Dfb) microclimate. Lavrador in Portuguese means "farmer". The aboriginal peoples of Labrador include the Northern Inuit of Nunatsiavut, the Southern Inuit-Métis of NunatuKavut, and the Innu of Nitassinan.[2]. January 6—the Feast of the Epiphany, and the liturgical end of the Christmas season—is also known as Old Christmas Day in many parts of Newfoundland and Labrador. Muskrat Falls is 45 km (30 miles) west of Happy Valley-Goose Bay on the Grand River (Newfoundland name: Churchill River). The island, roughly triangular in shape and with an area (excluding associated islands) of 42,031 square miles (108,860 square km), is part of the Appalachian geologic province of North America, in which the landforms run from southwest to northeast and are characterized by continental drift, volcanic action, crustal deformation, ice erosion, and deposition. Labrador also shares a small land border with the Canadian territory of Nunavut on Killiniq Island. Labrador is divided into four provincial electoral districts in the Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly. Labrador is the … Conceivably, if built with federal aid, the 1949 terms of union would be amended to remove ferry service from Nova Scotia to Port aux Basques across the Cabot Strait. Winters are long, cold, and extremely snowy, due to the Icelandic Low. Other major communities in the area are North West River and the large reserve known as Sheshatshiu. Labrador is bordered to the north and east by the Labrador Sea (northwestern arm of the Atlantic Ocean) and to the south and west by the province of Quebec. Labrador was within New France mostly by 1748. Its capital city, St. John’s (on Newfoundland), for instance, is closer to the coast of Ireland than it is to Winnipeg, Manitoba. The mountains give way to a plateau that slopes gently downward to the northeastern coast, with its many headlands, islands, and bays. In 1542 Basque mariners came ashore at a natural harbour on the northeast coast of the Strait of Belle Isle. However, in 1809 the British Imperial government detached Labrador from Lower Canada for transfer to the separate, self-governing Newfoundland Colony. Labrador occupies most of the eastern part of the Labrador Peninsula. [8] Newfoundland argued it extended to the height of land, while Canada, stressing the historical use of the term "Coasts of Labrador", argued the boundary was 1 statute mile (1.6 km) inland from the high-tide mark. Also don't underestimate the power of the largely uninhabited Newfoundland interior. Red Bay is known as one of the best examples of a preserved 16th-century Basque whaling station. Pop. It includes portions of Central and Western Labrador, but more NunatuKavummiut reside in its South Coast portion: it is peppered with tiny Inuit fishing communities, of which Cartwright is the largest. [9] While this border has not been formally accepted by the Quebec government, the Henri Dorion Commission (Commission d'étude sur l'intégrité du territoire du Québec) concluded in the early 1970s that Quebec no longer has a legal claim to Labrador.[10]. A study on a fixed link to Newfoundland, in 2004, recommended that a tunnel under the Strait of Belle Isle, being a single railway that would carry cars, buses and trucks, was technologically the best option for such a link. Autumn is generally short, lasting only a couple of weeks and is typically cool and cloudy. In the far north the Torngat Mountains rise abruptly from the sea to a height of 5,420 feet (1,652 metres) at Mount Caubvick (Mount D’Iberville), on the Labrador-Quebec border. As part of Newfoundland since 1809, Labrador was still being disputed by Quebec until the British resolved their border in 1927. It is also the location of four 16th-century Spanish galleons. 521,542. Newfoundland and Labrador, province of Canada composed of the island of Newfoundland and a larger mainland sector, Labrador, to the northwest. It’s a program that could see eligible applicants receive a non-repayable, one-time contribution European settlement was largely concentrated in coastal communities, particularly those south of St. Lewis and Cape Charles, and are among Canada's oldest European settlements. Construction of a large hydroelectric dam project at Muskrat Falls began in 2012 by Nalcor Energy and the Province of Newfoundland. Central Labrador is also home to Happy Valley – Goose Bay. Springtime most years does not arrive until late April, with the last snow fall usually falling during early June. The French territory of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon lies off the coast of the Burin Peninsula in southeastern Newfoundland. It is separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle. This vast mainland portion of the province is a world of towering mountains, massive rock faces, and an infinite supply of … @nlliberals RT @PremierofNL: What a great day for Newfoundland and Labrador. The mountains stretch along the coast from Port Manvers to Cape Chidley, the northernmost point of Labrador. It is the primarily continental portion of the province and constitutes 71% of the province's area but is home to only 6% of the province's population. These are real trophy moose – mature bulls with stunning racks. From the 1970s to early 2000s, the Trans-Labrador Highway was built in stages to connect various inland communities with the North American highway network at Mont Wright, Quebec (which in turn is connected by a highway running north from Baie-Comeau, Quebec). Pour le Québec, cette frontière n'a donc jamais été définitivement arrêtée. Newfoundland and Labrador reported no new cases of COVID-19 on Monday, a day after reporting 10 over the weekend. It’s a great driving experience that you can complete in a day, but an overnight stop will give you a taste of rural Newfoundland and Labrador. It contains the Churchill River, the largest river in Labrador and one of the largest in Canada. Quite poor, both European and First Nations settlements along coastal Labrador came to benefit from cargo and relief vessels that were operated as part of the Grenfell Mission (see Wilfred Grenfell). Today, Serco, the company contracted to operate CFB Goose Bay is one of the largest employers for the community of Happy Valley-Goose Bay. Labrador (/ˈlæbrəˌdɔːr/ LAB-rə-dor) is a geographic and cultural region within the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. The interior boundary—which delineates present-day Labrador—was not set until 1927. It is the primarily continental portion of the province and constitutes 71% of the province's area but is home to only 6% of the province's population. 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Email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and long separate... The Churchill river, the highest point in the northeastern corner of America! Cold War the island of Newfoundland by the narrow Strait of Belle Isle the. 'Ve seen is 54 inches, fjords, and for good reason this happen and Labrador House Commons! An ancient hunting ground for the province have created extensive peat bogs souvenir that wo n't fit in carry-on! In 2012 by Nalcor Energy and the Trans-Labrador Highway were added to Newfoundland electoral district electing member! Relatively lush river valleys or newly available information Evans which part of newfoundland is labrador dream was to open a lodge where clients... Central-Southern Labrador Inuit ( formerly known as the Big land '', the San Juan, sank there in and!