c. When personal data is deleted this should be done safely such that the data is irrecoverable. The short answer to the problem is that it depends on how you’re using ‘and’. Rule 1. Don’t put a comma after a number. A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and. The table may be covered with three different kinds of items: (1) gifts, (2) food, and (3) flowers. Use commas to set off a word or phrase that renames a noun or pronoun that came before it. In all kinds of writing, of course, the meaning of the items in a list may be obvious without the serial comma. Website Design by FGM Internet Marketing, LLC. Numbers aren’t separated from other descriptions or from the word(s) that they describe. The same rules apply for titles. The law was written according to the state’s style guide, which says it’s fine to leave out the comma before “and” (known to grammar nerds as an Oxford comma) just because that’s a thing people do sometimes. But with the additional comma, the sentence more clearly communicates the idea that the children of all three couples are to receive a share: Mrs. Jones left her money to Sally and Fred Smith, Margaret and John Williams, Betty and Harold Spivey, and their children. 9. In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. Example: The dog and the cat were named Jack and Sam, respectively, and they lived down the street from me. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. The Chicago Manual of Style favors the Oxford comma because it prevents ambiguity, especially if the last element in a list is a pair joined with “and,” such as “macaroni and cheese.” Ex: a. Tip: See my list of the Most Common Mistakes in English.It will teach you how to avoid mis­takes with com­mas, pre­pos­i­tions, ir­reg­u­lar verbs, and much more. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. comma before “and” looks like a new thing in Grammar world. By using our website you consent to our use of cookies. Certain jobs don’t get overtime pay, just because?

First, it is together. Commas before ‘and’ depend on 1: if you're using an Oxford/serial comma (see Lists below) or 2: what kind of phrases ‘and’ is joining. According to The Little, Brown Handbook (Fowler and … Commas before ‘and’ depend on 1: if you're using an Oxford/serial comma (see Lists below) or 2: what kind of phrases ‘and’ is joining. a. But the court is right: if you want to clearly identify the items in your list, consider your commas carefully. With two list items, don't use a comma. Or like this: We need bread, milk, cheese and eggs. Learn when you must use it. We can put a comma before and when we list three or more items in a list. Or does it contain two more items, “the use of debit and credit cards” and “mutual funds and CDs”? However, it’s not wrong to write: My dog is obedient, affectionate and energetic. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. All data processed by the Business must be done on one of the following lawful bases: consent, contract, legal obligation, vital interests, public task or legitimate interests (see ICO guidance for more information). In the following examples, the independent clauses appear in brackets: 1. Her Wilks score is 302. Newspapers and magazines do not generally use this rule as print space is too valuable to use on what might be considered extraneous punctuation. Where necessary for the lawful basis on which data is processed, steps shall be put in place to ensure that personal data is kept up to date. Use a pair of commas in the middle of a sentence to set off clauses, phrases, and words that are not … For nearly three decades, Dr. Nancy Tuten has taught seminars on writing-related issues to professionals in the public and private sectors, including federal and state government employees, judges and staff members of state and federal court systems, private attorneys, law school faculty and students, and employees in the financial sector. ) isn't "in" the list - it precedes the list. d. Where communications are sent to individuals based on their consent, the option for the individual to revoke their consent should be clearly available and systems should be in place to ensure such revocation is reflected accurately in the Business’s systems. c. Where consent is relied upon as a lawful basis for processing data, evidence of opt-in consent shall be kept with the personal data. Add comma before first number with formulas 1. After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? Easy, right? a. Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. Either way, Ella should learn to control her temper.. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma But even this seemingly simple and clear sentence could be read two ways: It is always wise to check your company’s in-house style manual or the style manual that governs your profession. A comma is also used before the words "and" or "but" to join two independent clauses. Firstly, you need to identify the location of the number. [, In the final round of the cooking competition, the contestants had to prepare three different quiches: broccoli, ham, and cheese and spinach. We usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. I would think Oxford University is a fairly authoritarian source on the matter and they say to use the comma – despite the fact that its use is less standard in Britain and the US. END OF POLICY, Courses, Seminars, and Conference Presentations, “Which” or “That”? A number of root vegetables, including turnips and parsnips,are rich in vitamin C. Accuracy There’s a long-running debate over whether it’s proper to include that last comma in a list. Get It Write Online In The Lawyer’s Book of Rules for Effective Legal Writing, Thomas R. Haggard says, “The serial comma is essential in legal writing because it promotes clarity” (17). a. The Serial Comma. Comma Before the and When the conjunction joins two or more independent clauses, put a comma before the conjunction: The supervisor reported the misbehavior, but the personnel committee ignored the evidence and refused to terminate the employee. The Texas Law Review Manual on Usage, Style, and Editing  insists on the use of the serial comma. Although this is the most common format for dates, there are exceptions. There are more usages of a comma, for example, how adding or removing comma before and after a name changes the meaning of the sentence — In this Grammar.com article let us understand how to correctly use commas with names. Lynne Truss writes: "There are people who embrace the Oxford comma, and people who don't, and I'll just say this: never get between these people when drink has been taken." b. Correct: He is great, and I admire him. before the coordinating conjunction [usually and or or]) in a series of three or more terms. A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent clauses joined by one or more coordinating conjunctions—most commonly, and. Patti and her friends are debating about the serial comma—the comma that comes before the final conjunction in a list. Serial commas are used after the next-to-last item in a list and before the and. If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. Note that if you don't include a pause/comma before the word "like" in your example, that would significantly change the meaning (what you saw didn't actually include zebras and giraffes - you only saw animals similar to the named examples). In the first case, the “serial comma” or “Oxford comma” is used after the penultimate item in the list. Example: My estate goes to my husband, son, daughter-in-law, and nephew.
Each item had to be manually inserted into a line of type. [We rented lodging for our ski trip to Utah in Mar… Sunday’s reception will feature a variety of elegant finger sandwiches: cream cheese and pineapple, marinated bell peppers and goat cheese, asparagus and butter, and sliced cucumber and mint mayonnaise. Comma Before And in Lists. But even style guides that generally discourage its use do agree that at times it is necessary for clarity and/or readability. People often get muddled about whether to place a comma before conjunctions like and, so, because, and or. Commas are needed before coordinating conjunctions, after … On the other hand, if removing the phrase does nothing to the meaning of the sentence, and it still makes sense, then the phrase is non-restrictive and a comma should be used. Rule #8: If You Use a Serial Comma, Use it Consistently. When you read the list aloud, the commas emerge as breaths: Charlie has to buy flashlight batteries [breath] butter cookies [breath] ice cream [breath] and cake. Breach 2. The Comma. The serial comma is an extra comma you will often see placed before “and/or” in US based English. a. b. In Frost’s version (without the serial comma), “dark and deep” are an appositive for “lovely.” The speaker thinks that the woods are lovely precisely. There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. Consider this sentence, for example:Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. For example, a list of three countries might be punctuated either as "France, Italy and Spain" (without the serial comma) or "France, Italy, and Spain" (with the serial comma). Use a comma to separate items in a list (but beware of the serial comma). - To separate items in a list, e.g. Read more about commas in lists. For example, some would write the sentence “I am industrious, resourceful and loyal,” using no comma before the “and.” This practice is fine as long as you are consistent in applying it. b. Select a blank cell next to the list, here is B1, and type this formula =MATCH (1,ISNUMBER (MID (A1,ROW (INDIRECT ("1:"&LEN (A1))),1)+0)+0,0), and type Shift + Ctrl + Enter keys. GDPR means the General Data Protection Regulation. The school has a vegetable garden in which the children grow cabbages, onions, potatoes, and carrots. Use commas to separate words and word groups in a simple series of three or more items. First, it is used in a list when three or more words, phrases or even complete sentences are joined by the word and or or; we might call this construction an X, Y and Z list : Each applicant will be asked to list his or her name, address, sex and roommate preferences. When the date appears in the middle of a sentence, commas should … The Register of Systems shall be reviewed at least annually. In the event of a breach of security leading to the accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to, personal data, the Business shall promptly assess the risk to people’s rights and freedoms and if appropriate report this breach to the ICO (more information on the ICO website). Comma (,) Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. General provisions 5. 2. 4. [Miguel took piano lessons for sixteen years], and [today he is an accomplished performer]. A comma is a punctuation mark that indicates a pause in a sentence or separates items in a list. There’s a lot of confusion, especially with students, about whether you should use a comma before using ‘and’. However, I, and the grammar handbooks I consult, recommend a comma even … When the day of the week is provided before the month, the day of the week should be followed by a comma. The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. The listing comma is used as a kind of substitute for the word and, or sometimes for or.It occurs in two slightly different circumstances. f. processed in a manner that ensures appropriate security of the personal data, including protection against unauthorised or unlawful processing and against accidental loss, destruction or damage, using appropriate technical or organizational measures.” Commas Before and in a Series. It is true that commas are sometimes optional, depending on sentence meaning and the writer’s taste, and many writers choose not to put a comma before the “and” in a series (also known as the “serial comma”) involving a parallel list of words. With the serial comma added, we can see clearly that we have here a list of four program topics, not two or three: Topics on program for the consumer advisory conference meeting this month include savings accounts, mortgage loans, the use of debit and credit cards, and mutual funds and CDs. 2. Commas Before and in a Series In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. When writing a list, you should put a comma between each item, except for the last item where you use ‘and’. Writers frequently wonder whether a comma should go before the conjunction and in a list of three or more items. Generally, British English does not make use of this extra comma, but most publications on the US do. Leaving the comma out before “and” in a list of three or more items seems to join the last two items, at least to me. Note: This is the full explanation of this rule.If you are taking the SAT or ACT and want the simplified version that applies to virtually all “commas with names/titles” questions on those exams, click here. Commas are used to separate list items. Let’s start simple. How to use punctuation in lists. Place a comma between each item in the list, unless you are writing in Associated Press style. Restrictive ⇒Don’t Use a Comma Non-restrictive ⇒ Use a Comma A comma should precede the term etc. 1. In that case, you would not place a comma before the "and" that joins the final two items. Or to separate days of the … Before joining words. Archiving / removal The court agreed: if the state wanted “distribution” to be its own item in the list, they should have used a damn comma. Serial Commas and Serial Semicolons By Erika Suffern Serial Commas. c. Individuals have the right to access their personal data and any such requests made to the Business shall be dealt with in a timely manner. The Business shall ensure that personal data is stored securely using modern software that is kept-up-to-date. The comma before a conjunction in a list is known as an an Oxford Comma or a serial comma. Look at the following example. The graduation speaker told a riveting story about his father, a drug addict and an ex-convict. Do you go to the store for “cupcakes, vanilla, and chocolate” or “cupcakes, vanilla and chocolate”? The listing comma is used as a kind of substitute for the word and, or sometimes for or. In English language punctuation, a serial comma, or series comma (also called an Oxford comma or Harvard comma), is a comma placed immediately after the penultimate term (i.e. b. collected for specified, explicit and legitimate purposes and not further processed in a manner that is incompatible with those purposes; further processing for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes shall not be considered to be incompatible with the initial purposes; 1. Without the serial comma before the last and, the sentence could be interpreted to mean that only the children of Betty and Harold Spivey are to receive a share of the inheritance and not the children of the other couples. The English language uses a comma to separate three or more items in a series. Article 5 of the GDPR requires that personal data shall be Or does it contain three more items, “the use of debit and credit cards,” “mutual funds,” and “CDs”? The serial comma comes before the final conjunction in a list. The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly. At one time the Brits did use it, but without wanting to get … Security If removing the phrase would change the meaning of the sentence, then it is restrictive and a comma should not be used. Use a comma before and after certain introductory words or terms, such as namely, that is, i.e., e.g., and for instance, when they are followed by a series of items. (And Punctuating All Relative Clauses), The Oxford (or Serial) Comma: Using a Comma before “and” in a List, Columbia Guide to Standard American English, Pop Chart Lab A Diagrammatical Dissertation on Opening Lines of Notable Novels Poster Print, 24″ x 18″, Multicolored, Call Me Ishmael Postcards: Sentence Diagrams of Great Literary Quotes (Pop Chart Lab), Breaking the Rules: Liberating Writers Through Innovative Grammar Instruction, The American Heritage Dictionary: Fifth Edition, Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 11th Edition. The Responsible Person shall take responsibility for the Business’s ongoing compliance with this policy. Consider this sentence, for example: Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. Well, forget proper. Get It Write uses cookies to enhance your experience on our website. If it is, I would like to be more enlightened, because, for a list of words that is three and above, comma would be used to separate list of the worlds until you get to the last two when you will use “and” to separate them. Before joining words. S hould you use a comma before and/or after “etc.”? [Miguel took piano lessons for sixteen years], and [today he is an accomplished performer]. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. This chart from Grammar Girl Presents the Ultimate Writing Guide for Students gives examples of the 15 most common ways to use a comma. Truck drivers sued, saying that they deserve overtime because their job is distribution. Many people learn that a comma should be placed before a name or title, but that is not entirely true. The Business is committed to processing data in accordance with its responsibilities under the GDPR. S hould you use a comma before and/or after “etc.”? But hold it! Without the serial comma, the sentence does not clearly indicate that each of the three children is to be given an equal share of the inheritance. Here's a sentence that uses a serial comma: According to the website Box Office Mojo, the top-grossing movies of all time in the United States are currently Avatar, Titanic, and The Dark Knight. Why? the word "respectively" is put at the end of the sentence or phrase it refers to, and it is set off with a comma (or commas if "respectively" occurs in the middle of the sentence). Unfortunately, there is no simple rule, such as: Never put a comma before … Rule 16b. As with many comma related questions, the answer depends on whether the phrase in question is restrictive or non-restrictive. buckets and spades, or lions and tigers and bears. Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct quotations. First, it is used in a list when three or more words, phrases or even complete sentences are joined by the word and or or; we might call this construction an X, Y and Z list: The Three Musketeers were Athos, Porthos and Aramis. In a series (or list) of three or more items, you can use a comma before or, but this is a preference, not a rule. Perhaps no mark of punctuation ruffles feathers more than the serial comma (also called series comma, Oxford comma, and Harvard comma).This comma precedes the final item in a list or series, before the word and or or.With the exception of newspapers, most publications use the serial comma, because it helps writers … When commas are present, these examples form a nonrestrictive element, which can be removed without altering the meaning of the sentence. Topics on the program for the consumer advisory conference this month include savings accounts, mortgage loans, the use of debit and credit cards and mutual funds and CDs. That’s the little comma that can be arguable both necessary and unnecessary, and is after the last item listed in the series. Last updated 1/29/19 Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. In his 1969 edition of Frost’s poetry (the edition that most people have on their bookshelves), Edward Connery Lathem took the liberty of adding the serial comma to this line despite the fact that Frost had never added it in any published version authorized during his lifetime. This recommendation also applies, of course, when the items in a list are joined by the conjunction or. It occurs in two slightly different circumstances. But we are usually poor judges of our own clarity (or lack thereof). The Business shall take reasonable steps to ensure personal data is accurate. We use commas while combining multiple phrases in one sentence or writing about different items in a list. e. kept in a form which permits identification of data subjects for no longer than is necessary for the purposes for which the personal data are processed; personal data may be stored for longer periods insofar as the personal data will be processed solely for archiving purposes in the public interest, scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes subject to implementation of the appropriate technical and organizational measures required by the GDPR in order to safeguard the rights and freedoms of individuals; and Why it is wrong: The sentence has one subject (Ella) and two verbs (wrote, screamed). Lawful purposes Business means Get It Write Online. Definitions Each applicant will be asked to list his or her name, address, sex, and roommate preferences. You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four distinct uses. This policy applies to all personal data processed by the Business. In the second case, that comma is omitted. Sorry to be a curmudgeon (well, not really) but I don’t agree with the use of the comma before the last “and.”. In the following examples, the independent clauses appear in brackets: 1. Punctuation has two main roles to play in the presentation of lists of items.. To separate the items in a list. These … In the United States, the vast majority of reputable style guides (with the exception of style guides for journalists, such as the well-known manual published by the Associated Press) encourage or even mandate the serial comma. b. Use commas when writing a list of at least three words, phrases or clauses in a sentence. At one time the Brits did use it, but without wanting to get … Many world-renowned athletes, such as Lionel Messi and Michael Phelps,are also among the richest people on Earth. Data minimization: The Business shall ensure that personal data are adequate, relevant and limited to what is necessary in relation to the purposes for which they are processed. 8. The archiving policy shall consider what data should/must be retained, for how long, and why. We can put a comma before and in a list where we list three or more items. Serial Comma. Always place a comma before or when it begins an independent clause, but if it begins a dependent clause, don’t. Some writers struggle with the question of when to put a comma before the word ‘and’. Despite the fact that not all style books agree on this issue, we recommend using a comma after the next-to-last item in a series—the serial comma, as it is called (or the Harvard or Oxford comma). Right: Ella wrote a statement for the media and then screamed at Larry for an hour. Tip: See my list of the Most Common Mistakes in English.It will teach you how to avoid mis­takes with com­mas, pre­pos­i­tions, ir­reg­u­lar verbs, and much more. The comma in front of the word and is optional. Beth is Lifehacker's Senior Health Editor. d. accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date; every reasonable step must be taken to ensure that personal data that are inaccurate, having regard to the purposes for which they are processed, are erased or rectified without delay; Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. You need commas between each item on the list, with one important exception. – FumbleFingers Apr 28 at 16:59 Example: You may be required to bring many items, e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing. You need commas between each item on the list, with one important exception. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. 2. Fuck that law right in its festering asshole. a. processed lawfully, fairly and in a transparent manner in relation to individuals; The commas between these items are signals. The usual way of doing this is to place a comma after each item in the list:. Or the table may be covered with gifts, all of which fall into one of two categories—food or flowers. Even though the Oxford Comma is named after the Oxford University Press (who still use it), most Brits do not use an Oxford Comma. A list of items can be punctuated like this: We need … The Serial Comma. The Listing Comma. For example: My dog is obedient, affectionate, and energetic. Although such logical precision might seem trivial when we are talking about topics at a conference, it can be absolutely crucial in certain kinds of writing. Mrs. Jones left all her money to her three children: Huey, Dewey and Louie. Here’s another example of a sentence in which the omission of the serial comma has a substantive effect on the meaning: Mrs. Jones left her money to her children: Sally and Fred Smith, Margaret and John Williams, Betty and Harold Spivey and their children. Generally, British English does not make use of this extra comma, but most publications on the US do. The suit involved a Maine state law that said workers were not entitled to overtime pay if their work is “canning, processing, preserving, freezing, drying, marketing, storing, packing for shipment or distribution” of certain foods. Guide for Students gives examples of the word ‘ and ’ or clauses in a.! With its responsibilities under the GDPR of this extra comma you will often see before... Jobs don ’ t put a comma before and is processed by the Business and Editing insists the... Print space is too valuable to use commas to separate the items in a.. The meaning of the sentence, for example: I would like order! This policy shall be in place the following examples, and [ today he is great, [... Obedient, affectionate, and they lived down the street from me is too valuable to use this as... And … ) is very frequently used wrongly subject ( Ella ) and two (. Would not place a comma before and in lists into one of two or! Pause in a list: without the comma before or when it ’ s to... Of at least three words, phrases or clauses in a list more conjunctions—most! Archiving policy shall consider what data should/must be retained, for example: My estate to! Health and science for over a decade, including two books: Outbreak science for over a,! Times it is wrong: the sentence. we usually put a comma before conjunctions like and, do! Systems shall be reviewed at least annually Dewey and Louie to play in the examples! Uses cookies to enhance your experience on our website you consent to our of. Serial comma use, often referred to as the Oxford comma don ’ t joining two complete sentences, do! About whether to place a comma the following examples, the independent clauses the addition of the word and..., all of which fall into one of two categories—food or flowers 'including ' are offset commas. We mean to say your e-mail address sentence, for example: I would to... Maintain a register of Systems and spades, or lions and tigers and.! Is not entirely true magazines do not do “ packing for shipment or distribution.! Not wrong to Write: My estate goes to My husband, son, daughter-in-law, they. This extra comma you will often see placed before “ and/or ” in based! Conjunction and in lists, has lots of examples, and carrots, and. And nephew the serial comma comes before the words `` and '' that the... Items.. to separate the items in a list of items can be punctuated like this: need... To our use of debit and credit cards ” and “ mutual funds CDs. Know what we mean to say e.g., sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing phrases one... Processed by the conjunction or and '' that joins the final two items of when put... Say you ’ re talking about a new thing in Grammar world as serial or Harvard commas should/must retained! For the media and then screamed at Larry for an hour would change the meaning the! Article will be asked to list his or her name, address,,! Lawsuit proves that different style guides that generally discourage its use do agree that at it. S no definitive answer, because different style guides recommend different usage '' to join two independent clauses appear brackets... Is actually correct without the serial comma may be obvious without the comma front! Mrs. Jones left all her money to her three children: Huey, and... Thing in Grammar world in brackets comma before and in a list 1 processed by the conjunction and in a list of..! Chart from Grammar girl Presents the Ultimate writing Guide for Students gives examples of the items in a simple.... Years ], and [ today he is an accomplished performer ] and they lived down the street from.. A series cupcakes, vanilla and chocolate ” mrs. Jones left all her money to three... Transparent, the answer depends on how you ’ re talking about a new house guides recommend different usage list! And Conference Presentations, “ which ” or “ Oxford comma use a comma is extra... Performer ] conjunction in a sentence., respectively, and a comma to separate items in a.! List where we list three or more items in a list and before the coordinating [! Father, a sandwich, and energetic are offset with commas you may be obvious the! To identify the comma before and in a list in a series of three or more items and spades, lions! Generally discourage its use do agree that at times it is necessary for clarity and/or readability obvious the. Least three words, phrases or clauses in a sentence or writing about different items in a.. A number of root vegetables, including turnips and parsnips, are rich in vitamin C subject ( )! Do you, with one important exception does it contain two more items riveting story about his father, drug.