We are left to wonder what we did right and what we did wrong—or even if it was closely read at all. A noteworthy characteristic of authentic assessment is its collaborative nature. We consider learning outcomes as maps to learning. Source: Reeves, T. C., Herrington, J., & Oliver, R. (2002). the instructor uses multiple sources for gathering information that would reveal a more accurate picture of learning progress as well as emphasizing the process of learning, not just the final product. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).. The Higher Educational Quality Council of Ontario offered a three-part series on the challenges and opportunities in assessment in late 2015, and Educause offered a three-part digital badge series (entitled. Dron’s contention, and the ability of prior learning processes to address this concern, are discussed in Chapter 5. The rubric should clarify curriculum objectives and provide criteria for meeting a range of proficiency levels (Mathur & Murray, 2006). The contribution of principles of adult education to online learning and assessment 3. Another one of the benefits in having students employ the criteria and standards by which they will be judged in a marking exercise is the constant refinement of the rubric itself for greater clarity and appropriateness. MLA citation style: Conrad, Dianne, Author, and Jason Openo. This chapter defines authentic assessment, grounds it in constructivist theory, and considers some of the design considerations necessary to build authentic assessments that deliver on the promise of their potential. 1. Distance Education: Vol. Such learners benefit most from assessments that as closely as possible replicate the task or process being assessed. (2004) maintain that, for fairness and efficacy, it is important for teachers to set criteria and make them explicit and transparent to learners. Authentic assessments are based in real-world relevance. Who among us has not received a paper back with only a checkmark on the last page and a grade? 1. can better gauge learner growth over time. But in their defence, they can provide some degree of guidelines and rationalization for the forthcoming assessment to learners as they go about their work. 136–138). 4 | Authenticity and Engagement. Authentic assessments are frequently collaborative in nature, routinely using technology-rich co-construction environments (Barber, King, & Buchanan, 2015). There are also concerns regarding the “Gentleman’s A” and grade inflation. I. Openo, Jason, 1973-, author II. Each rubric was developed to support essential learning outcomes, which reflect the most frequently identified characteristics of learning, having been tested by faculty at over 100 college campuses. Feedback and Critique: Keeping the Learning Cycle Turning, Another important consideration in designing authentic assessments is planning for formative assessment and feedback. Formative Assessment Strategies Many formative assessment strategies can be used to fuel the formative learning cycle and help make sure students with disabilities know what they are trying to learn and use evidence from their learning to continue to improve. Of service learning, Steinke and Fitch (2007) write that, because of [its] goal-based, real world nature, enhancing the quality of service-learning assessment can also provide a fresh perspective on the increasingly complex and often contentious assessment debates at colleges and universities across the country. For many learners assessment conjures up visions of red pens scrawling percentages in the top right-hand corner of exams and feelings of stress, inadequacy, and failure. Authentic assessments, especially in blended and online learning contexts, encourage students to take a deep approach to learning, provide necessary alignment for faculty to better determine the quantity and quality of student learning, and provide institutions with the evidence necessary to respond to external pressures regarding their ability to measure student learning outcomes. Need for further, or special, assistance The analysis of students’ classroom work allows teachers to modify their instruction so that they will be more effective i… Mail Planning for the delivery of positive feedback to learners can help them succeed in their studies. To assess these different areas, Astin et al., in their list of principles, recommended that assessment begin with educational values, and they caution that when values are skipped over, assessment diminishes to measuring what’s easy, rather than offering a process that seeks to improve what’s important to learners. Though there’s something to be said for old-fashioned paper and pencil methods, new technologies are evolving daily to assist teachers with this task. As Nagel and Kotzé (2010) point out, “one of the strategies that can improve the quality of education, particularly in web-based classes, is electronic peer. Authentic assessments serve the interests of students by encouraging them to play a more active role in the assessment of their own learning through activities such as reflective exercises, self-evaluations in tandem with peer assessments, collaborative projects, semantic mapping, and e-portfolios. Colby, Ehrlich, Beaumont, and Stephens (2003) suggest that assessment practices should assess students holistically, including “knowledge, abilities, values, attitudes and habits of mind that affect academic success and performance beyond the classroom” (p. 259). PDF | On May 10, 2020, Abdulvahap Sönmez published BOOK REVIEW Assessment Strategies for Online Learning Engagement and Authenticity Written by Dianne Conrad … As with learning outcomes, they are touted as useful guidelines for effective teaching and learning. The nature of service-learning often demands authentic assessments as faculty struggle to capture the real world transfer skills they believe are developing in their students. Medland (2010) concludes her study on subjectivity in assessment with the suggestion that understanding our own biases and subjectivity could help educators engaged in team marking find great “coherence.” Educators who have participated in team marking will know, from experience, that the range of responses to learners’ work by colleagues in the same discipline, content area, or field can be astonishingly varied. Strengths, weaknesses, and learning styles 3. The blend of real-life experience with reflective activity, centred on expected outcomes, should produce a very authentic assessment or evaluation activity. al., 2003), and one of the great complaints by students of the reading of their assignments is that feedback is sparse or more confirmatory than explanatory. We cannot deny our bias as teachers; the best we can do is understand it and address it by making it clear. Both learning outcomes and rubrics should—ideally—precede assessment. On a cautionary note, however, Wlodkowski (2008) uses this analogy: “They’re like a wall whose cracks you can’t see until you get very close” (p. 341). A great deal of information can be learned from students’ homework, tests, and quizzes—especially if the students are required to explain their thinking. The role of learning outcomes in the alignment and planning process is discussed in, The examples that follow are actual rubrics, instructor-written and designer approved, for a university course. The following are examples of potential service-learning experiences: Learners returning from their service-learning placements are assessed on their on-site experiences in relation to course learning outcomes that have been achieved. In the same criticism, Dron accuses learning outcomes of trying to bridge the gap between “knowing how” and “knowing that” (p. 296). Problem-based learning is defined as an “instructional method character-ized by the use of ‘real-world’ problems as a context for students to learn critical Are ill-defined, requiring learners to define the tasks and sub-tasks needed to complete the activity, Comprise complex tasks to be investigated by learners over a sustained period of time, Provide the opportunity for learners to examine the task from different perspectives, using a variety of resources, Provide the opportunity to reflect and involve learners’ beliefs and values, Can be integrated and applied across different subject areas and lead beyond domain-specific outcomes, Are seamlessly integrated with assessment, Create polished products valuable in their own right rather than as preparation for something else, Allow competing solutions and diversity of outcome. The text may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes, provided that credit is given to the original author. Includes bibliographical references and index. 2. APA citation style: Conrad, D. & Openo, J. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). 1). Whatever the case, feedback—explanatory and confirmatory—is key to the cycle of authentic assessment. Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity. Rust et al. Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity (Issues in Distance Education) Kindle Edition by Dianne Conrad (Author), Jason Openo (Author) Format: Kindle Edition. Title. Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, and Garrison (2013) suggest that, to promote student engagement by using feedback, “instructors in a blended community of inquiry are also encouraged to take a portfolio approach to assessment, [as] this involves students receiving a second chance or opportunity for summative assessment on their course assignments” (p. 93). Peer assessment (see, ) can also be a particularly useful approach to building a knowledge of standards, comparing those standards to a learning object, and providing students opportunities to engage with feedback and improve their work. Within the CoI framework, assessment is part of “teaching presence,” the unifying force that “brings together the social and cognitive processes directed to personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile outcomes” (Vaughan, Garrison, & Cleveland-Innes, 2013, p. 12). Assessment strategies for online learning : engagement and authenticity / Dianne Conrad and Jason Openo. Defining the evaluation taking as an epicentre the reflection that the students do is to go to the heart of the educational question. However, rubrics cannot overcome, diminish, or sidestep the marker’s dependence on his or her own judgment, professionalism, and integrity. Dron (2007) is highly critical: “Worse still, learning outcomes are fuzzy, context-related, and dubious constructs, at best and, at worst, absolutely meaningless” (p. 296). Chickering and Gamson’s “Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education” (1991) encourages respect for diverse talents and ways of learning. [Dianne Conrad; Jason Openo] -- "For many learners, assessment conjures up visions of red pens scrawling percentages in the top right-hand corner of exams and feelings of stress, inadequacy, and failure. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). called for a move toward more authentic assessment strategies designed to increase learner engagement in the learning process at the same time as setting the stage for learners to develop higher-order cognitive skills that align with both learner and employer expectations. logically. Attitudes, Engagement and Strategies ... Students’ learning strategies ... A comprehensive assessment of how well a country is performing in education must therefore look at these cognitive, affective and attitudinal aspects in addition to academic performance. Astin et al.’s principles further assert that assessment works best when it is ongoing, not episodic, when assessment reflects an understanding of learning as multidimensional, integrated, and revealed in performance over time; assessment also requires attention not only to outcomes but also and in equal measure to the performance that leads to those outcomes. 4, pp. Conrad and Openo's combined wealth of experience as adult educators and online practitioners is evident in this well written text on assessment strategies for online learning. Similarly, Reeves (2000) suggests three main strategies to integrate alternative assessment into online learning settings: 1. cognitive assessment, 2. (p. 361). (2018). Halpern and Associates. Following this notion, the collaboration of learners with the instructor in the creation of rubrics supports constructivist thinking and fosters the building of community within the learning group. 41, No. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund (CBF) for our publishing activities and the assistance provided by the Government of Alberta through the Alberta Media Fund. Exploring and understanding our philosophical approach, as teachers, is key to this process. Design Considerations for Authentic Assessment, Work on a Habitat for Humanity project constructing housing for families with low incomes, Organize or assist with voter registration, Assist with community events and projects such as museum activities, cultural awareness programs, fairs and festivals, Adopt-a-Highway, neighbourhood clean-up and beautification days, Serve as a mentor for a young person through Big Brothers Big Sisters, Scouting, 4-H, or other youth organizations, Help senior citizens with a variety of activities that enhance their quality of life, Conduct a conservation project at a park, lakeshore, or nature centre, Tutor elementary or secondary students in a variety of subjects, work with literacy, or serve as a “Reading Partner” to encourage youngsters to develop good reading habits. Athabasca: Athabasca University Press. 4, pp. Subjectivity in the teaching-learning process is often regarded as the elephant in the room—more so in the social sciences and humanities than in the hard sciences, which is a discussion akin to the ever-present one around the “truthfulness” of both qualitative and quantitative research. Buy Assessment Strategies for Online Learning : Engagement and Authenticity at Walmart.com Matuga (2006) writes that “situating assessment and evaluation as essentially social activities, influenced by unique affordances and constraints of a particular educational context, is a critical pedagogical component when designing and teaching online courses” (p. 317). Student assessment has changed in the new millennium. Changing College Classrooms: New Teaching and Learning Strategies for an Increasingly Complex World, Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1994, San Francisco, CA. According to Gulikers et al. Distance Education publishes on open, distance and flexible education where learners are free from the constraints of the time, pace and place of study. Formative Assessment Strategies Many formative assessment strategies can be used to fuel the formative learning cycle and help make sure students with disabilities know what they are trying to learn and use evidence from their learning to continue to improve. Learners should be able to see and understand the relationship between the parts of their courses. Key Idea: Align assessments with learning objectives. Assessment Strategies for Online Learning: Engagement and Authenticity. Stanford Libraries' official online search tool for books, media, journals, databases, government documents and more. Building tasks for authenticity is essential for learners to engage with problems and tasks that replicate, as much as possible, real-life and professional situations. Providing multiple opportunities to submit iterations of their work, and thereby encouraging students to work to close the gap between current and desired performance, is highly authentic and similar to real-world work contexts. Because employees usually know the criteria by which they will be judged, Gulikers et al. These expectations correspond to Herrington et al.’s (2006) perspective on the value of authentic tasks and their “polished products.” Criteria and standards, therefore, become valued characteristics of assessments, with standards being the level of performance expected. Price New from Garrison and Archer (2000) argue that properly constructed and applied learning outcomes align with a constructivist and collaborative learning environment. (2005) cite Sadler (1989), who identified three conditions for effective feedback: (1) a knowledge of the standards in use; (2) comparison of those standards to one’s own work; and (3) the required action to close the gap between the two. (Issues in distance education series)Includes bibliographical references and index.Issued in print and electronic formats. They are designed to actively engage students in their own learning by using real-life situations, requiring students to make connections and forge relationships between prior knowledge and skills, and allowing for multiple pathways for solutions and a diversity of perspectives (Moon, Brighton, Callahan, & Robinson, 2005). There are currently no refbacks. Defining the evaluation taking as an epicentre the reflection that the students do is to go to the heart of the educational question. Learning approaches, which form the foundation for the relationship between the of... 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