[30] These names – Luna, Cynthia and Selene – are reflected in technical terms for lunar orbits such as apolune, pericynthion and selenocentric. [181][182], Understanding of the Moon's cycles was an early development of astronomy: by the 5th century BC, Babylonian astronomers had recorded the 18-year Saros cycle of lunar eclipses,[183] and Indian astronomers had described the Moon's monthly elongation. Der weitgehend automatisierte Förderprozess benötigt nur noch einen einzigen menschlichen Bediener. The orientation of the Moon's crescent also depends on the latitude of the viewing location; an observer in the tropics can see a smile-shaped crescent Moon. This makes possible both total (with the Moon appearing larger than the Sun) and annular (with the Moon appearing smaller than the Sun) solar eclipses. On December 19 the Moon is 5.06 days old. Zusätzlich wird GERTY auf eigenen Wunsch hin neu gebootet, um zu verhindern, dass dessen Speicher ausgelesen wird und Lunar Industries so von den Vorgängen erfährt. The spacecraft showed that concentrations may possibly be as high as 1,000 ppm. [220] The Indian Space Research Organisation planned to launch Chandrayaan-2 in 2013, which would have included a Russian robotic lunar rover. The decision is regarded as a precedent helping to define regulatory standards for deep-space commercial activity in the future, as thus far companies' operation had been restricted to being on or around Earth. There are a few different types of unusual full moon types, which include blood moons, supermoons, blue moons, and harvest moons, and others. Moon - Wählen Sie dem Favoriten. [53], The Moon is a differentiated body. With 27% the diameter and 60% the density of Earth, the Moon has 1.23% of the mass of Earth. Alle in der folgenden Liste gelisteten Moon sind unmittelbar im Internet erhältlich und somit in weniger als 2 Tagen bei Ihnen zuhause. [212] In 1994, the U.S. sent the joint Defense Department/NASA spacecraft Clementine to lunar orbit. Atomic clocks also show that Earth's day lengthens by about 15 microseconds every year,[169] slowly increasing the rate at which UTC is adjusted by leap seconds. The Moon is a very slightly scalene ellipsoid due to tidal stretching, with its long axis displaced 30° from facing the Earth (due to gravitational anomalies from impact basins). = The adjective selenian /səliːniən/,[24] derived from the Greek word for the Moon, σελήνη selēnē, and used to describe the Moon as a world rather than as an object in the sky, is rare,[25] while its cognate selenic was originally a rare synonym[26] but now nearly always refers to the chemical element selenium. ( The Moon's apparent size is nearly the same as that of the Sun, allowing it to cover the Sun almost completely during a total solar eclipse. The U.S. co-launched the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and the LCROSS impactor and follow-up observation orbiter on 18 June 2009; LCROSS completed its mission by making a planned and widely observed impact in the crater Cabeus on 9 October 2009,[223] whereas LRO is currently in operation, obtaining precise lunar altimetry and high-resolution imagery. [71] Rock and soil samples were brought back to Earth by three Luna sample return missions (Luna 16 in 1970, Luna 20 in 1972, and Luna 24 in 1976), which returned 0.3 kg total. [27] The Greek word for the Moon does however provide us with the prefix seleno-, as in selenography, the study of the physical features of the Moon, as well as the element name selenium.[28][29]. This rotation is due to tidal locking synchronous to its orbital period around Earth. The synodic period drives its lunar phases, which form the basis for the months of a lunar calendar. Warcraft: The Beginning (2016) | Subsequently the dust was tasted and smelled by the astronauts, calling it the "Apollo aroma". Thomas Harriot had made, but not published such drawings a few months earlier. There is no strong correlation between the sizes of planets and the sizes of their satellites. The subsequent landing of the first humans on the Moon in 1969 is seen by many as the culmination of the Space Race. The Moon has long been particularly associated with insanity and irrationality; the words lunacy and lunatic (popular shortening loony) are derived from the Latin name for the Moon, Luna. Likewise, hundreds of millions of years in the future, the Moon will no longer cover the Sun completely, and total solar eclipses will not occur. The Moon is in synchronous rotation as it orbits Earth; it rotates about its axis in about the same time it takes to orbit Earth. India's first lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, orbited from 8 November 2008 until loss of contact on 27 August 2009, creating a high-resolution chemical, mineralogical and photo-geological map of the lunar surface, and confirming the presence of water molecules in lunar soil. ) [188] Shen Kuo (1031–1095) of the Song dynasty created an allegory equating the waxing and waning of the Moon to a round ball of reflective silver that, when doused with white powder and viewed from the side, would appear to be a crescent. After the Moon race the focus of astronautic exploration shifted in the 1970s with probes like Pioneer 10 and the Voyager program towards the outer solar system. [134][135], In October 2017, NASA scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston announced their finding, based on studies of Moon magma samples retrieved by the Apollo missions, that the Moon had once possessed a relatively thick atmosphere for a period of 70 million years between 3 and 4 billion years ago. Ranging to the stations is routinely performed from Earth-based stations with an accuracy of a few centimeters, and data from this experiment are being used to place constraints on the size of the lunar core.[211]. Occasionally, the name Luna /ˈluːnə/ is used in scientific writing[21] and especially in science fiction to distinguish the Earth's moon from others, while in poetry "Luna" has been used to denote personification of Earth's moon. Also, as it evolves toward becoming a red giant, the size of the Sun, and its apparent diameter in the sky, are slowly increasing. [198][199] The Air Force, which at the time was in competition with the Army for a leading role in the space program, developed its own similar plan called Lunex. A planetary-mass moon, it has among satellites with a known density the second highest surface gravity and density in the Solar System after Jupiter's moon Io. Zooplankton in the Arctic use moonlight when the Sun is below the horizon for months on end. Der jüngere Sam zerstört mit den Harvestern die abseits der Basis gelegenen Störsender, mit denen bis dahin ein direkter Funkkontakt zwischen Mondbasis und der Erde verhindert wurde. [238] In January 2018 the foundation announced that the prize would go unclaimed as none of the finalist teams would be able to make a launch attempt by the deadline. Eclipses only occur when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are all in a straight line (termed "syzygy"). However, the Sun will become a red giant engulfing the Earth-Moon system long before this occurrence. The Moon does appear larger when close to the horizon, but this is a purely psychological effect, known as the moon illusion, first described in the 7th century BC. Diese warten inaktiv in einem geheimen Untergeschoss der Basis auf ihren Einsatz. [164] Since the Moon is orbiting the Earth in the same direction of the Earth's rotation, the high tides occur about every 12 hours and 25 minutes; the 25 minutes is due to the Moon's time to orbit the Earth. [166] The Earth-induced component arises from libration, a result of the Moon's orbital eccentricity (if the Moon's orbit were perfectly circular, there would only be solar tides). Common optical effects are the 22° halo ring, formed when the Moon's light is refracted through the ice crystals of high cirrostratus clouds, and smaller coronal rings when the Moon is seen through thin clouds.[163]. [41][42][43][44] Other bodies of the inner Solar System such as Mars and Vesta have, according to meteorites from them, very different oxygen and tungsten isotopic compositions compared to Earth. Recently, it has been suggested that a roughly 3 km (1.9 mi) diameter region of the lunar surface was modified by a gas release event about a million years ago. [47][48] Similarly, the newly formed Moon would also have been affected and had its own lunar magma ocean; its depth is estimated from about 500 km (300 miles) to 1,737 km (1,079 miles). 4th century BC) gave instructions for predicting solar and lunar eclipses. NASA released photos of the crater on 25 December 2011.[224]. A prize of $20 million was to be awarded to the first private venture to get to the Moon with a robotic lander by the end of March 2018, with additional prizes worth $10 million for further milestones. [59] However, the inner core of the Moon is small, with a radius of about 350 kilometres (220 mi) or less,[1] around 20% of the radius of the Moon. 2 Its sources include outgassing and sputtering, a product of the bombardment of lunar soil by solar wind ions. [228], NASA began to plan to resume human missions following the call by U.S. President George W. Bush on 14 January 2004 for a human mission to the Moon by 2019 and the construction of a lunar base by 2024. This results in it always keeping nearly the same face turned towards Earth. [36], The prevailing hypothesis is that the Earth–Moon system formed after a giant impact of a Mars-sized body (named Theia) with the proto-Earth. [46], The impact released a lot of energy and then the released material re-accreted into the Earth–Moon system. Two NASA GRAIL spacecraft began orbiting the Moon around 1 January 2012,[225] on a mission to learn more about the Moon's internal structure. [233], On 28 February 2018, SpaceX, Vodafone, Nokia and Audi announced a collaboration to install a 4G wireless communication network on the Moon, with the aim of streaming live footage on the surface to Earth. The near side of the Moon is marked by dark volcanic maria ("seas"), which fill the spaces between bright ancient crustal highlands and prominent impact craters. Their shape is often accentuated by low albedo regions that wind between the bright swirls. [154] Reported as a "supermoon", this closest point coincided within an hour of a full moon, and it was 30% more luminous than when at its greatest distance because its angular diameter is 14% greater and This atmosphere, sourced from gases ejected from lunar volcanic eruptions, was twice the thickness of that of present-day Mars. During new moon, the near side is dark. [94] These figures were greatly improved by Ptolemy (90–168 AD): his values of a mean distance of 59 times Earth's radius and a diameter of 0.292 Earth diameters were close to the correct values of about 60 and 0.273 respectively. [203] An estimated 500 million people worldwide watched the transmission by the Apollo TV camera, the largest television audience for a live broadcast at that time. The apparent size of the Moon is roughly the same as that of the Sun, with both being viewed at close to one-half a degree wide. On July 20, 1969, NASA astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were the first people to set foot on the dusty surface of the Moon. There are several missions by different agencies and companies planned to establish a longterm human presence on the Moon, with the Lunar Gateway as the currently most advanced project as part of the Artemis program. Hamilton, Calvin J.; Hamilton, Rosanna L.. Brooks, A.S. and Smith, C.C. Eighteen months prior to an October 1984 conference on lunar origins, Bill Hartmann, Roger Phillips, and Jeff Taylor challenged fellow lunar scientists: "You have eighteen months. [121], The Moon has an external magnetic field of generally less than 0.2 nanoteslas,[122] or less than one hundred thousandth that of Earth. Between the first human arrival with the robotic Soviet Luna program in 1958, to the 1970s with the last Missions of the crewed U.S. Apollo landings and last Luna mission in 1976, the Cold War-inspired Space Race between the Soviet Union and the U.S. led to an acceleration of interest in exploration of the Moon. Klone werden auch dann getötet, wenn sie ihre Aufgabe nicht mehr erfüllen können. This 'fossil bulge' indicates that the Moon solidified when it orbited at half its current distance to the Earth, and that it is now too cold for its shape to adjust to its orbit. [189] However, in the 2nd century BC, Seleucus of Seleucia correctly theorized that tides were due to the attraction of the Moon, and that their height depends on the Moon's position relative to the Sun. Telescopic mapping of the Moon followed: later in the 17th century, the efforts of Giovanni Battista Riccioli and Francesco Maria Grimaldi led to the system of naming of lunar features in use today. While gravitation causes acceleration and movement of the Earth's fluid oceans, gravitational coupling between the Moon and Earth's solid body is mostly elastic and plastic. Gleichzeitig erkennt er jedoch wichtige Variationen, sodass etwas Neues erschaffen werden könne: „Nun ist es ein Prinzip des Genrefilms, dass in ihm jeweils das Bekannte neu variiert und arrangiert wird, und in diesem Sinne ist ‚Moon‘ gewitzt, spannend und einfallsreich.“ So schaffe es der Hauptdarsteller Sam Rockwell, „überzeugend gegen sich selber anzuspielen, und die erzählerischen Wendungen sind so gut vorbereitet und kaschiert, dass auch ein Kenner des Genres bis zum Schluss überrascht wird.“[10], Martina Knoben von der Süddeutschen Zeitung hebt schließlich erneut die philosophischen Aspekte des Films hervor, wenngleich sie zusätzliche Elemente vermisst: „Die philosophischen Fragen bilden schließlich nur den anregenden Hintergrund für eine spannende Psychostudie und einen etwas weniger spannenden Thriller.“ Zudem stellt sie heraus, dass Moon ein Film sei, der weniger das Neue suche, sondern eine Hommage an vergangene Werke darstelle: „Moon führt nicht auf neues, unbekanntes Terrain, wie es James Cameron in Avatar so spektakulär eröffnet hat, Duncan Jones ist lässiger. 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