Pridmore RD(1), Crouzillat D, Walker C, Foley S, Zink R, Zwahlen MC, Brüssow H, Pétiard V, Mollet B. Recent advancements in high-throughput sequencing, proteomics, metabolomics, and bioinformatics have revolutionized the microbial ecology research and immensely improved our understanding of the microbiome. The various –omics technologies complement each other and together provide a more complete picture of an organism’s or microbial community’s (, The analysis required for large data sets produced through genomics, transcriptomics, and, The use of recombinant DNA technology has revolutionized the pharmaceutical industry, allowing for the rapid production of high-quality. Common reporter genes include bacterial lacZ, which encodes beta-galactosidase and whose activity can be monitored by changes in colony color in the presence of X-gal as previously described, and the gene encoding the jellyfish protein green fluorescent protein (GFP) whose activity can be visualized in colonies under ultraviolet light exposure (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)). These double-stranded RNAs are bound to DICER, an endonuclease that cleaves the RNA into short molecules (approximately 20 nucleotides long). Gene targeting is a different technique that uses homologous recombination to change an endogenous gene, and can be used to delete a gene, remove exons, add a gene, or introduce point mutations. Crizelda D. Liwanag, MSc, RMT Genetic Manipulations. siRNAs are completely complementary to the mRNA transcript of a specific gene of interest while miRNAs are mostly complementary. The microorganisms that are observed are bacteria, and archaea. In addition to studying the natural history of microbes, it deals with every aspects of microbe-human and environmental interaction. Transformation 3. Applications: Industrial Applications of Biotechnology: The industrial application of molecular biotechnology is often subdivided, so that we speak of red, green, gray or white biotechnology. Applications in Diagnosis Applications in Diagnosis 1. Figure 1. Among these are fields that study aspects of whole genomes, collectively referred to as whole-genome methods. Advances in molecular biology have led to the creation of entirely new fields of science. ... they have restricted industrial applications but can be used in leather industries and in food industries (For manufacture of breads and rolls). 1. Original content via Openstax (CC BY 4.0; Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/microbiology/pages/1-introduction). Eventually, genetic engineering will be used to produce DNA vaccines and various gene therapies, as well as customized medicines for fighting cancer and other diseases. In this challenge, genetic and metabolic engineering are playing a progressive important role in the production of different types of genetically modified foods in the food industry. 2. If the miRNA is completely complementary to the target gene, then the mRNA can be cleaved. Figure 1. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. B. identical to human insulin produced in the pancreas. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. The siRNA-RISC complex binds to mRNA and cleaves it. Taken together, these mechanisms are known as gene silencing. B. transcriptomics The microorganisms are then grown on an industrial scale to synthesize products such as insulin, vaccines, and biodegradable polymers. However, since 1978, recombinant DNA technology has been used to produce large-scale quantities of human insulin using E. coli in a relatively inexpensive process that yields a more consistently effective pharmaceutical product. (Austin, "Genotype," n.d.) Genetic Engineering is a field of work and study … Even though the vaccine does not contain the hepatitis B virus, the presence of the antigenic protein stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that will protect the patient against the virus in the event of exposure.4 5. The RNAs are then bound to RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a ribonucleoprotein. Industrial biotechnology applies the techniques of modern molecular biology to improve the efficiency and reduce the environmental impacts of industrial processes like textile, paper and pulp, and chemical manufacturing. The technologies of high-throughput screening and processing with efficient microbial species, along with the ultimate coupling of genetic engineering of amylase-producing strains, will all help in enhancing amylase production for industrial and medicinal applications. Reverse genetics uses the opposite approach, starting with a specific DNA sequence and attempting to determine what phenotype it produces. The field of transcriptomics is the science of the entire collection of mRNA molecules produced by cells. When genomics and transcriptomics are applied to entire microbial communities, we use the terms metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, respectively. RNA interference technology involves using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs) (Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\)). For miRNA, only one of the two strands binds to RISC. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. This gives the researcher important information about what the gene product might be doing or where it is located in the organism. These are just a few of the numerous applications of microbial genetics that we will explore in this chapter. 3. Scientists compare gene expression patterns between infected and uninfected host cells, gaining important information about the cellular responses to infectious disease. Since the 1990s, gene therapy has been used in clinical trials to treat diseases and conditions such as AIDS, cystic fibrosis, cancer, and high cholesterol. The application of genomics to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of drugs on the basis of information from an individual’s genomic sequence is called ____________. Genotypes are the inherited compositions of an organism. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! What are the biomarkers uncovered in proteomics used for? Genetics is the study of how traits, conditions, and/or diseases are passed between generations in a family as well as the variation seen in the traits, conditions, and/or diseases due to single genes. A. a combination of E. coli and human insulin. Microbial Proteases: industrial application and production process. For example, a vaccine for hepatitis B is created by inserting a gene encoding a hepatitis B surface protein into a yeast; the yeast then produces this protein, which the human immune system recognizes as an antigen. Amylases have potential application in a number of industrial processes such as in food, textiles, paper industries, bread making, glucose and fructose syrup, detergents, fuel, ethanol, from starches, fruit juices, alcoholic beverages, sweatness digestive aid, spot remover in dry cleaning. KEYWORDS microbial growth rate, stable-isotope probing, heavy water, CF sputum, Staphylococcus aureus, Prevotella, respiratory pathogens Received14June2018 Accepted19 Genomic responses to drugs can be studied using experimental animals (such as laboratory rats or mice) or live cells in the laboratory before embarking on studies with humans. Microbial genetics has played a unique role in developing the fields of molecular and cell biology and also has found applications in medicine, agriculture, and the food and pharmaceutical industries. The fermentation bioprocess is the major biotechnological application in food processing. Genetic engineering has applications in medicine, research, industry and agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and microorganisms. In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes, the genetic material is DNA; the only known exceptions to this rule are the RNA … Another byproduct is a type of human growth hormone; it’s used to treat dwarfism and is produced through genetically-engineered bacteria and yeasts. Genetic engineering has applications in medicine, research, industry and agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and microorganisms. The science of studying the entire collection of mRNA molecules produced by cells, allowing scientists to monitor differences in gene expression patterns between cells, is called: A. genomics Genomics, however, is the study of all of a person’s genes (‘the genome’) and how different gene… Contributions of Microbiology to Pharmaceutical Industry. C. metagenomics Have questions or comments? Thus, the genome is constant, but the proteome varies and is dynamic within an organism. Pathology applications • Biomarkers to assess patients at risk of recurrence, predict successful therapy • Stool-based analytes vs microbial community signatures • As blood banks manage blood transfusion will micro labs manage therapeutic microbial communities, whether from vendor or in-house sources. Gene Transfer Processes for Bacteria and Their Viruses 1. This emerging field of bioinformatics can be used, among many other applications, for clues to treating diseases and understanding the workings of cells. Missed the LibreFest? Industrial applications include transforming microorganisms such as bacteria or yeast, or insect mammalian cells with a gene coding for a useful protein. 12.3: Whole Genome Methods and Industrial Applications, [ "article:topic", "authorname:openstax", "genomics", "Transcriptomics", "proteomics", "Metagenomics", "bioinformatics", "Reporter genes", "recombinant DNA pharmaceuticals", "RNA interference", "showtoc:no", "license:ccby" ], 12.4: Genetic Engineering - Risks, Benefits, and Perceptions, Genomics, Transcriptomics, and Proteomics, Recombinant DNA Technology and Pharmaceutical Production, http://www.rxlist.com/recombivax-drug.htm, https://openstax.org/books/microbiology/pages/1-introduction, Treatment of heart disease (e.g., congestive heart failure), kidney disease, high blood pressure, Treatment of viscous lung secretions in cystic fibrosis, Treatment of severe anemia with kidney damage, Treatment of growth hormone deficiency, Turner’s syndrome, burns, Treatment of multiple sclerosis, various cancers (e.g., melanoma), viral infections (e.g., Hepatitis B and C), Treatment of pulmonary embolism in ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, Explain the uses of genome-wide comparative analyses, Summarize the advantages of genetically engineered pharmaceutical products. The PCR tests on the CSF and synovial fluid came back positive for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Transduction 4. What are some advantages of cloning human genes into bacteria to treat human diseases caused by specific protein deficiencies? This field has great potential for future medical advances through the study of the human genome as well as the genomes of infectious organisms. The microorganisms are then grown on an industrial scale to synthesize products such as insulin, vaccines, and biodegradable polymers. Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism’s genome using biotechnology. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. The production of ethanol by yeasts has been exploited by the brewing industry for thousands of years and is used for fuel production. Detection of DNA • Electrophoresis • Southern Blotting • PCR • DNA Fingerprinting • DNA Sequencing •3. Microbial Products The term industrial microbiology refers to the use of microorganisms for industrial purposes. Current status of the application of traditional and new biotechnologies in food processing in developing countries . C. cheaper but less effective than pig insulin for treating diabetes. 2. RNA interference of specific genes results from the base pairing of short, single-stranded antisense RNA molecules to regions within complementary mRNA molecules, preventing protein synthesis. Even though all cells of a multicellular organism have the same set of genes, cells in various tissues produce different sets of proteins. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. Genes may be removed, or “knocked out”, using a nuclease. 1999 ; Boetius et al. The hepatitis B antigen is purified from yeast cultures and administered to patients as a vaccine. Chapter 8: Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics Figure 8.1 A thermal cycler (left) is used during a polymerase chain reaction (PCR).PCR amplifies the number of copies of DNA and can assist in diagnosis of infections caused by microbes that are difficult to culture, such as Chlamydia trachomatis (right).C. This awareness led us to develop an new workflow for the application of stable isotope probing in this context, improving our ability to estimate pathogen generation times in clinical samples. Lyme disease is often difficult to diagnose. B. transcriptomics importance of microbiology in pharmaceutical industry microbial contamination in pharmaceutical products has massive consequences & company suffers enormous damage when a drug product is recalled & the directhit will cause as loss of product sales, decreased customer confidence, damage to the legal proceedings. Additionally, transcriptomics can be used to monitor the gene expression of virulence factors in microorganisms, aiding scientists in better understanding pathogenic processes from this viewpoint. A thermal cycler (left) is used during a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A thermal cycler (left) is used during a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A gene whose expression can be easily visualized and monitored is called a ________. Hereditary processes in microorganisms are analogous to those in multicellular organisms. Analysis of microbial genomes has contributed to the development of new antibiotics, diagnostic tools, vaccines, medical treatments, and environmental cleanup techniques. This field has great potential for future medical advances through the study of the human genome as well as the genomes of infectious organisms. The aim of the “Microbial Genetics and Genomics” section is to provide a platform for current research on archaea, bacteria, microbial eukaryotes and viruses. For example, at one time, it was possible to treat diabetes only by giving patients pig insulin, which caused allergic reactions due to small differences between the proteins expressed in human and pig insulin. Introduction. Nina Parker, (Shenandoah University), Mark Schneegurt (Wichita State University), Anh-Hue Thi Tu (Georgia Southwestern State University), Philip Lister (Central New Mexico Community College), and Brian M. Forster (Saint Joseph’s University) with many contributing authors. The field of transcriptomics is the science of the entire collection of mRNA molecules produced by cells. Table \(\PageIndex{1}\) lists examples of recombinant DNA products and their uses. Alternatively, scientists can attach known genes (called reporter genes) that encode easily observable characteristics to genes of interest, and the location of expression of such genes of interest can be easily monitored. RNA interference does not influence the sequence of genomic DNA. In research, organisms are genetically engineered to discover the functions of certain genes. Explain how microorganisms can be engineered to produce vaccines. The physician collected samples of Kayla’s blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and synovial fluid (from one of her swollen knees) and requested PCR analysis on all three samples. Another up-and-coming clinical application of genomics and transcriptomics is pharmacogenomics, also called toxicogenomics, which involves evaluating the effectiveness and safety of drugs on the basis of information from an individual’s genomic sequence. This distinction relates to the use of the technology in the medical field (in human and animal medicine), agriculture, the environment and industry. Genetic engineering has provided a way to create new pharmaceutical products called recombinant DNA pharmaceuticals. 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